Global Historical Stocks and Emissions of PBDEs
Sammendrag: The first spatially and temporally resolved inventory of BDE28, 47, 99, 153, 183, and 209 in the anthroposphere and environment is presented here. The stock and emissions of PBDE congeners were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis model, CiP-CAFE. To evaluate our results, the emission estimates were used as input to the BETR-Global model. Estimated concentrations were compared with observed concentrations in air from background areas. The global (a) in-use and (b) waste stocks of ∑5BDE(28, 47, 99, 153, 183) and BDE209 are estimated to be (a) ∼25 and 400 kt and (b) 13 and 100 kt, respectively, in 2018. A total of 6 (0.3–13) and 10.5 (9–12) kt of ∑5BDE and BDE209, respectively, has been emitted to the atmosphere by 2018. More than 70% of PBDE emissions during production and use occurred in the industrialized regions, while more than 70% of the emissions during waste disposal occurred in the less industrialized regions. A total of 70 kt of ∑5BDE and BDE209 was recycled within products since 1970. As recycling rates are expected to increase under the circular economy, an additional 45 kt of PBDEs (mainly BDE209) may reappear in new products.