Optimization of a low flow sampler for improved assessment of gas and particle bound exposure to chlorinated paraffins
Sammendrag: An optimized low volume sampler was developed to determine both gas- and particle bound concentrations of short and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (S/MCCPs). Background contamination was limited by the sampler design, providing method quantification limits (MQLs) at least two orders of magnitude lower than other studies within the gas (MQL: 500 pg (ΣSCCPs), 1.86 ng (ΣMCCPs)) and particle (MQL: 500 pg (ΣSCCPs), 1.72 ng (ΣMCCPs) phases. Good repeatability was observed between parallel indoor measurements (RSD ≤ 9.3% (gas), RSD ≤ 14% (particle)) with no breakthrough/saturation observed after a week of continuous sampling. For indoor air sampling, SCCPs were dominant within the gas phase (17 ± 4.9 ng/m3) compared to MCCPs (2.7 ± 0.8 ng/m3) while the opposite was observed in the particle bound fraction (0.28 ± 0.11 ng/m3 (ΣSCCPs) vs. 2.7 ± 1.0 ng/m3 (ΣMCCPs)). Only SCCPs in the gas phase could be detected reliably during outdoor sampling and were considerably lower compared to indoor concentrations (0.27 ± 0.10 ng/m3). Separation of the gas and particle bound phase was found to be crucial in applying the appropriate response factors for quantification based on the deconvoluted S/MCCP sample profile, thus avoiding over- (gas phase) or underestimation (particle phase) of reported concentrations. Very short chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, C5-C9) were also detected at equal or higher abundance compared to SCCP congener groups (C10-C13) congener groups, indicating an additional human indoor inhalation risk.