GUV long-term measurements of total ozone column and effective cloud transmittance at three Norwegian sites
Sammendrag: Measurements of total ozone column and effective cloud transmittance have been performed since 1995 at the three Norwegian sites Oslo/Kjeller, Andøya/Tromsø, and in Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard). These sites are a subset of nine stations included in the Norwegian UV monitoring network, which uses ground-based ultraviolet (GUV) multi-filter instruments and is operated by the Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (DSA) and the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). The network includes unique data sets of high-time-resolution measurements that can be used for a broad range of atmospheric and biological exposure studies. Comparison of the 25-year records of GUV (global sky) total ozone measurements with Brewer direct sun (DS) measurements shows that the GUV instruments provide valuable supplements to the more standardized ground-based instruments. The GUV instruments can fill in missing data and extend the measuring season at sites with reduced staff and/or characterized by harsh environmental conditions, such as Ny-Ålesund. Also, a harmonized GUV can easily be moved to more remote/unmanned locations and provide independent total ozone column data sets. The GUV instrument in Ny-Ålesund captured well the exceptionally large Arctic ozone depletion in March/April 2020, whereas the GUV instrument in Oslo recorded a mini ozone hole in December 2019 with total ozone values below 200 DU. For all the three Norwegian stations there is a slight increase in total ozone from 1995 until today. Measurements of GUV effective cloud transmittance in Ny-Ålesund indicate that there has been a significant change in albedo during the past 25 years, most likely resulting from increased temperatures and Arctic ice melt in the area surrounding Svalbard.