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Vitenskapelig artikkel

Spatial trends of chlorinated paraffins and dechloranes in air and soil in a tropical urban, suburban, and rural environment

Nipen, Maja; Vogt, Rolf David; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borgå, Katrine; Mwakalapa, Eliezer Brown; Borgen, anders Røsrud; Jørgensen, Susanne Jøntvedt; Ntapanta, Samwel Moses; Mmochi, Aviti John; Schlabach, Martin; Breivik, Knut; Borgen, Anders Røsrud

Publikasjonsdetaljer

Tidsskrift: Environmental Pollution, vol. 292, 118298, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118298
Lenke: Institusjonsarkiv

Sammendrag: There are large knowledge gaps concerning environmental levels and fate of many organic pollutants, particularly for chemicals of emerging concern in tropical regions of the Global South. In this study, we investigated the levels of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) and dechloranes in air and soil in rural, suburban, and urban regions in and around Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Samples were also collected near the city's main municipal waste dumpsite and an electronic waste (e-waste) handling facility. In passive air samples, short chain CPs (SCCPs) dominated, with an average estimated concentration of 22 ng/m3, while medium chain CPs (MCCPs) had an average estimated concentration of 9 ng/m3. The average estimated air concentration of ∑dechloranes (Dechlorane Plus (DP) + Dechlorane 602 + Dechlorane 603) was three to four orders of magnitudes lower, 2 pg/m3. In soil samples, MCCPs dominated with an average concentration of 640 ng/g dw, followed by SCCPs with an average concentration of 330 ng/g dw, and ∑dechloranes with an average concentration of 0.9 ng/g dw. In both air and soil, DP was the dominating dechlorane compound. Urban pulses were observed for CPs and dechloranes in air and soil. CPs were in addition found in elevated levels at the municipal waste dumpsite and the e-waste handling facility, while DPs were found in elevated levels at the e-waste handling facility. This suggests that waste handling sites represent important emission sources for these pollutants. Investigations into seasonal trends and environmental fate of CPs and dechloranes showed that monsoonal rain patterns play a major role in governing air concentrations and mobility, particularly for the less volatile MCCPs and dechloranes. This study is the first to report levels of CPs in air from sub-Saharan Africa, and DP, Dechlorane 602, and Dechlorane 603 in soil from sub-Saharan Africa.