Serie: Eionet Report - ETC/ATNI 2020/5
The report holds a comprehensive literature review on the non-exhaust PM emission from transport. All types of wear particles are considered (brake, tyre, road surface) and all modes (road, rail, aviation), with strong emphasis on road. The report serves as an input to review current emission inventories, summarizing the current emission estimates, the estimation methodologies, uncertainties and future trends, briefly zooming in on the relevance of electric vehicles. The report considers both air quality as well as the relevance of non-exhaust emission as a source of microplastics. To conclude, the report includes a brief overview of technological and policy options to reduce the environmental impact.