Tidsskrift: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, vol. 19, 55, 1–14, 2022
Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance has previously not been established for neurological diseases. Possibly, variability in cerebrospinal fluid clearance may affect the underlying disease process and may possibly be a source of under- or over-dosage of intrathecally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance of the intrathecally administered magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadobutrol (Gadovist, Bayer Pharma AG, GE). For this, we established a population pharmacokinetic model, hypothesizing that cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance differs between cerebrospinal fluid diseases.
Gadobutrol served as a surrogate tracer for extra-vascular pathways taken by several brain metabolites and drugs in cerebrospinal fluid. We estimated cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance in patients with different cerebrospinal fluid disorders, i.e. symptomatic pineal and arachnoid cysts, as well as tentative spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or different types of hydrocephalus (idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, communicating- and non-communicating hydrocephalus). Individuals with no verified cerebrospinal fluid disturbance at clinical work-up were denoted references.
Population pharmacokinetic modelling based on 1,140 blood samples from 161 individuals revealed marked inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic profiles, including differences in absorption half-life (time to 50% of tracer absorbed from cerebrospinal fluid to blood), time to maximum concentration in blood and the maximum concentration in blood as well as the area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to infinity. In addition, the different disease categories of cerebrospinal fluid diseases demonstrated different profiles.
The present observations of considerable variation in cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance between individuals in general and across neurological diseases, may suggest that defining cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance can become a useful diagnostic adjunct for work-up of cerebrospinal fluid disorders. We also suggest that it may become useful for assessing clearance capacity of endogenous brain metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid, as well as measuring individual cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance of intrathecal drugs.