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A template wizard for the cocreation of machine-readable data-reporting to harmonize the evaluation of (nano)materials

Jeliazkova, Nina; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; El Yamani, Naouale; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Moschini, Elisa; Serchi, Tommaso; Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Burgum, Michael J.; Doak, Shareen H.; Cimpan, Mihaela Roxana; Rios-Mondragon, Ivan; Cimpan, Emil; Battistelli, Chiara L.; Bossa, Cecilia; Tsekovska, Rositsa; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Repar, Neža; Ammar, Ammar; Nymark, Penny; Di Battista, Veronica; Sosnowska, Anita; Puzyn, Tomasz; Kochev, Nikolay; Iliev, Luchesar; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Reilly, Katie; Lynch, Iseult; Martine, Bakker; Delpivo, Camilla; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Fonseca, Ana Sofia; Manier, Nicolas; Fernandez-Cruz, María Luisa; Rashid, Shahzad; Willighagen, Egon L.; Apostolova, Margarita D; Dusinska, Maria

2024

Global relevance of atmospheric observations in the Antarctica

Eckhardt, Sabine; Aas, Wenche; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Lunder, Chris Rene; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Svendby, Tove Marit; Stebel, Kerstin; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Tørseth, Kjetil

2024

Emission ensemble approach to improve the development of multi-scale emission inventories

Thunis, Philippe; Kuenen, Jeroen; Pisoni, Enrico; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Banja, Manjola; Gawuc, Lech; Szymankiewicz, Karol; Guizardi, Diego; Crippa, Monica; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Guevara, Marc; de Meij, Alexander; Schindlbacher, Sabine; Clappier, Alain

Many studies have shown that emission inventories are one of the inputs with the most critical influences on the results of air quality modelling. Comparing emission inventories among themselves is, therefore, essential to build confidence in emission estimates. In this work, we extend the approach of Thunis et al. (2022) to compare emission inventories by building a benchmark that serves as a reference for comparisons. This benchmark is an ensemble that is based on three state-of-the-art EU-wide inventories: CAMS-REG, EMEP and EDGAR. The ensemble-based methodology screens differences between inventories and the ensemble. It excludes differences that are not relevant and identifies among the remaining ones those that need special attention. We applied the ensemble-based screening to both an EU-wide and a local (Poland) inventory.

The EU-wide analysis highlighted a large number of inconsistencies. While the origin of some differences between EDGAR and the ensemble can be identified, their magnitude remains to be explained. These differences mostly occur for SO2 (sulfur oxides), PM (particulate matter) and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic carbon) for the industrial and residential sectors and reach a factor of 10 in some instances. Spatial inconsistencies mostly occur for the industry and other sectors.

At the local scale, inconsistencies relate mostly to differences in country sectorial shares that result from different sectors/activities being accounted for in the two types of inventories. This is explained by the fact that some emission sources are omitted in the local inventory due to a lack of appropriate geographically allocated activity data. We identified sectors and pollutants for which discussion between local and EU-wide emission compilers would be needed in order to reduce the magnitude of the observed differences (e.g. in the residential and industrial sectors).

The ensemble-based screening proved to be a useful approach to spot inconsistencies by reducing the number of necessary inventory comparisons. With the progressive resolution of inconsistencies and associated inventory improvements, the ensemble will improve. In this sense, we see the ensemble as a useful tool to motivate the community around a single common benchmark and monitor progress towards the improvement of regionally and locally developed emission inventories.

2024

Understanding individual heat exposure through interdisciplinary research on thermoception

Serrano, Paloma Yáñez; Bieńkowska, Zofia; Boni, Zofia; Chwałczyk, Franciszek; Hassani, Amirhossein

Extreme heat events are more frequent and more intense globally due to climate change. The urban environment is an additional factor enhancing the effects of heat. Adults above 65 years old are especially at risk due to their poorer health, physiology and socio-economic situation. Yet, there is limited knowledge about their experiences of summer heat, their actual heat exposure and how they negotiate their thermal comfort through different adaptation practices. In conventional research on heat exposure and thermal comfort, very little attention is given to individual behaviour and subjective experiences. To understand how older adults feel the heat in the city we study their thermoception, which we conceptualise as an embodied knowledge about bodily sensations, thermal environments and adjustments to heat. This article stems from interdisciplinary research conducted in Warsaw and Madrid in the summers of 2021–2022. We combine and juxtapose data from ethnographic research and from physical measurements of temperature gathered in people’s homes, to show on a microscale how we can study and understand the diversity in individual heat exposure more holistically. We demonstrate that to understand the consequences of heat for vulnerable populations it is crucial to study thermoception, the subjective experiences of heat, in addition to analysing their thermal environments. With the use of a unique methodology, this article shows how similar weather conditions are experienced differently by people from the same cities, depending on the materiality of their dwellings, availability of cooling devices, as well as everyday habits and their individual bodies. We discuss the social, material and temporal adjustments participants made to deal with heat, to showcase their agency in affecting their individual heat exposure. The article emphasises the role of social sciences and qualitative methods in research on individual heat exposure and argues for the co-production of knowledge on the topic.

Palgrave Macmillan

2024

A Machine Learning Approach to Retrieving Aerosol Optical Depth Using Solar Radiation Measurements

Logothetis, Stavros-Andreas; Salamalikis, Vasileios; Kazantzidis, Andreas

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) constitutes a key parameter of aerosols, providing vital information for quantifying the aerosol burden and air quality at global and regional levels. This study demonstrates a machine learning strategy for retrieving AOD under cloud-free conditions based on the synergy of machine learning algorithms (MLAs) and ground-based solar irradiance data. The performance of the proposed methodology was investigated by applying different components of solar irradiance. In particular, the use of direct instead of global irradiance as a model feature led to better performance. The MLA-based AODs were compared to reference AERONET retrievals, which encompassed RMSE values between 0.01 and 0.15, regardless of the underlying climate and aerosol environments. Among the MLAs, artificial neural networks outperformed the other algorithms in terms of RMSE at 54% of the measurement sites. The overall performance of MLA-based AODs against AERONET revealed a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.97), MAE of 0.01, and RMSE of 0.02. Compared to satellite (MODIS) and reanalysis (MERRA-2 and CAMSRA) data, the MLA-AOD retrievals revealed the highest accuracy at all stations. The ML-AOD retrievals have the potential to expand and complement the AOD information in non-existing timeframes when solar irradiances are available.

MDPI

2024

Estimating stratospheric polar vortex strength using ambient ocean-generated infrasound and stochastics-based machine learning

Vorobeva, Ekaterina; Eggen, Mari Dahl; Midtfjord, Alise Danielle; Benth, Fred Espen; Hupe, Patrick; Brissaud, Quentin; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.; Näsholm, Sven Peter

There are sparse opportunities for direct measurement of upper stratospheric winds, yet improving their representation in subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction models can have significant benefits. There is solid evidence from previous research that global atmospheric infrasound waves are sensitive to stratospheric dynamics. However, there is a lack of results providing a direct mapping between infrasound recordings and polar-cap upper stratospheric winds. The global International Monitoring System (IMS), which monitors compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, includes ground-based stations that can be used to characterize the infrasound soundscape continuously. In this study, multi-station IMS infrasound data were utilized along with a machine-learning supported stochastic model, Delay-SDE-net, to demonstrate how a near-real-time estimate of the polar-cap averaged zonal wind at 1-hPa pressure level can be found from infrasound data. The infrasound was filtered to a temporal low-frequency regime dominated by microbaroms, which are ambient-noise infrasonic waves continuously radiated into the atmosphere from nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating ocean surface waves. Delay-SDE-net was trained on 5 years (2014–2018) of infrasound data from three stations and the ERA5 reanalysis 1-hPa polar-cap averaged zonal wind. Using infrasound in 2019–2020 for validation, we demonstrate a prediction of the polar-cap averaged zonal wind, with an error standard deviation of around 12 m·s compared with ERA5. These findings highlight the potential of using infrasound data for near-real-time measurements of upper stratospheric dynamics. A long-term goal is to improve high-top atmospheric model accuracy, which can have significant implications for weather and climate prediction.

John Wiley & Sons

2024

Life starts with plastic: High occurrence of plastic pieces in fledglings of northern fulmars

Collard, France; Benjaminsen, Stine Charlotte; Herzke, Dorte; Husabø, Eirin; Sagerup, Kjetil; Tulatz, Felix; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

Elsevier

2024

Effect of Long-Range Transported Fire Aerosols on Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations and Cloud Properties at High Latitudes

Kommula, Snehitha M.; Buchholz, Angela; Gramlich, Yvette; Mielonen, Tero; Hao, L.; Pullinen, Iida; Vettikkat, Lejish; Ylisirniö, A.; Joutsensaari, J.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Tiitta, P; Leskinen, Ari; Heslin-Rees, Dominic; Haslett, S. L.; Siegel, Karolina; Lunder, Chris Rene; Zieger, Paul; Krejci, Radovan; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Mohr, C.; Virtanen, Annele

Active vegetation fires in south-eastern (SE) Europe resulted in a notable increase in the number concentration of aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) particles at two high latitude locations—the SMEAR IV station in Kuopio, Finland, and the Zeppelin Observatory in Svalbard, high Arctic. During the fire episode aerosol hygroscopicity κ slightly increased at SMEAR IV and at the Zeppelin Observatory κ decreased. Despite increased κ in high CCN conditions at SMEAR IV, the aerosol activation diameter increased due to the decreased supersaturation with an increase in aerosol loading. In addition, at SMEAR IV during the fire episode, in situ measured cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) increased by a factor of ∼7 as compared to non-fire periods which was in good agreement with the satellite observations (MODIS, Terra). Results from this study show the importance of SE European fires for cloud properties and radiative forcing in high latitudes.

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2024

In memory of Dr. Ir. Gudrun Koppen (1969–2024)

Collins, Andrew Richard Sherman; Azqueta, Oscoz Amaya; Schoeters, Greet; Slingers, Gitte; Dusinska, Maria; Langie, Sabine A.S.

2024

Recent advances and current challenges of new approach methodologies in developmental and adult neurotoxicity testing

Serafini, Melania Maria; Sepheri, Sara; Midali, Miriam; Stinckens, Marth; Biesiekierska, Marta; Wolniakowska, Anna; Gatzios, Alexandra; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Reszka, Edyta; Marinovich, Marina; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Roszak, Joanna; Viviani, Barbara; Tanima, SenGupta

Adult neurotoxicity (ANT) and developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) assessments aim to understand the adverse effects and underlying mechanisms of toxicants on the human nervous system. In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the so-called new approach methodologies (NAMs). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), together with European and American regulatory agencies, promote the use of validated alternative test systems, but to date, guidelines for regulatory DNT and ANT assessment rely primarily on classical animal testing. Alternative methods include both non-animal approaches and test systems on non-vertebrates (e.g., nematodes) or non-mammals (e.g., fish). Therefore, this review summarizes the recent advances of NAMs focusing on ANT and DNT and highlights the potential and current critical issues for the full implementation of these methods in the future. The status of the DNT in vitro battery (DNT IVB) is also reviewed as a first step of NAMs for the assessment of neurotoxicity in the regulatory context. Critical issues such as (i) the need for test batteries and method integration (from in silico and in vitro to in vivo alternatives, e.g., zebrafish, C. elegans) requiring interdisciplinarity to manage complexity, (ii) interlaboratory transferability, and (iii) the urgent need for method validation are discussed.

Springer

2024

Hybelkaniner kan være giftige: – Støvsug ofte, sier forsker

Solbakken, Christine Forsetlund

Norges forskningsråd

2024

Disse miljøgiftene fant forskerne igjen i de ville dyrene

Solbakken, Christine Forsetlund

Norges forskningsråd

2024

Støv på hjernen - hvor kommer støvet fra/er det farlig?

Nipen, Maja (intervjuobjekt); Cederström, Madeleine (journalist)

2024

Pass deg for hybelkaninene!

Nipen, Maja (intervjuobjekt); Pedersen, Elise; Norheim, Håkon Jonassen (journalister)

2024

The Greenhouse Gas Budget of Terrestrial Ecosystems in East Asia Since 2000

Wang, Xuhui; Gao, Yuanyi; Jeong, Sujong; Ito, Akihiko; Bastos, Ana; Poulter, Benjamin; Wang, Yilong; Ciais, Philippe; Tian, Hanqin; Yuan, Wenping; Chandra, Naveen; Chevallier, Frédéric; Fan, Lei; Hong, Songbai; Lauerwald, Ronny; Li, Wei; Lin, Zhengyang; Pan, Naiqing; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Shushi; Ran, Lishan; Sang, Yuxing; Sitch, Stephen; Takashi, Maki; Thompson, Rona Louise; Wang, Chenzhi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Tao; Xi, Yi; Xu, Liang; Yan, Yanzi; Yun, Jeongmin; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zhang, Zhen; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Shu; Canadell, Josep G.; Piao, Shilong

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2024

Modelled sources of airborne microplastics collected at a remote Southern Hemisphere site

Aves, Alex; Ruffell, Helena; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Gaw, Sally; Revell, Laura E.

Airborne microplastics have emerged in recent years as ubiquitous atmospheric pollutants. However, data from the Southern Hemisphere, and remote regions in particular, are sparse. Here, we report airborne microplastic deposition fluxes measured during a five-week sampling campaign at a remote site in the foothills of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Samples were collected over 24-hour periods for the first week and for 7-day periods thereafter. On average, atmospheric microplastic (MP) deposition fluxes were six times larger during the 24-hour sampling periods (150 MP m−2 day−1) than during the 7-day sampling periods (26 MP m−2 day−1), highlighting the importance of sampling frequency and deposition collector design to limit particle resuspension. Previous studies, many of which used weekly sampling frequencies or longer, may have substantially underestimated atmospheric microplastic deposition fluxes, depending on the study design. To identify likely sources of deposited microplastics, we performed simulations with a global dispersion model coupled with an emissions inventory of airborne microplastics. Modelled deposition fluxes are in good agreement with observations, highlighting the potential for this method in tracing sources of deposited microplastics globally. Modelling indicates that sea-spray was the dominant source when microplastics underwent long-range atmospheric transport, with a small contribution from road dust.

Elsevier

2024

Can plastic related chemicals be indicators of plastic ingestion in an Arctic seabird?

Collard, France; Tulatz, Felix; Harju, Mikael; Herzke, Dorte; Bourgeon, Sophie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

For decades, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) has been found to ingest and accumulate high loads of plastic due to its feeding ecology and digestive tract morphology. Plastic ingestion can lead to both physical and toxicological effects as ingested plastics can be a pathway for hazardous chemicals into seabirds' tissues. Many of these contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment and the contribution of plastic ingestion to the uptake of those contaminants in seabirds’ tissues is poorly known. In this study we aimed at quantifying several plastic-related chemicals (PRCs) -PBDE209, several dechloranes and several phthalate metabolites- and assessing their relationship with plastic burdens (both mass and number) to further investigate their potential use as proxies for plastic ingestion. Blood samples from fulmar fledglings and liver samples from both fledgling and non-fledgling fulmars were collected for PRC quantification. PBDE209 and dechloranes were quantified in 39 and 33 livers, respectively while phthalates were quantified in plasma. Plastic ingestion in these birds has been investigated previously and showed a higher prevalence in fledglings. PBDE209 was detected in 28.2 % of the liver samples. Dechlorane 602 was detected in all samples while Dechloranes 601 and 604 were not detected in any sample. Dechlorane 603 was detected in 11 individuals (33%). Phthalates were detected in one third of the analysed blood samples. Overall, no significant positive correlation was found between plastic burdens and PRC concentrations. However, a significant positive relationship between PBDE209 and plastic number was found in fledglings, although likely driven by one outlier. Our study shows the complexity of PRC exposure, the timeline of plastic ingestion and subsequent uptake of PRCs into the tissues in birds, the additional exposure of these chemicals via their prey, even in a species ingesting high loads of plastic.

Elsevier

2024

Nasjonalt samfunnsoppdrag om sirkulær økonomi. Forslag til organisering.

Möller, Charlotta; Tarrasón, Leonor; Guerreiro, Cristina

Denne rapporten inneholder forslag til organisering av et mulig nasjonalt samfunnsoppdrag om sirkulærøkonomien. Vårt forslag til organisering av et nasjonalt samfunnsoppdrag om sirkulær økonomi skiller seg noe fra eksisterende organisering av de to andre nasjonale samfunnsoppdragene i Norge i at den baserer seg på å etablere en omstillingslab. Omstillingslaben vil ha en rolle som likner på den «operativ gruppe» i de andre to nasjonale samfunnsoppdragene, men som er større i omfang, og har konkrete mål for oppfølgings- og medvirkningsprosesser mot målbar transformasjon.

NILU

2024

Norge ikke på topp i luftkvalitet

Høiskar, Britt Ann Kåstad (intervjuobjekt)

2024

Air quality in Sandefjord, Norway. November 2021 – August 2023.

Salamalikis, Vasileios; Castell, Nuria

This report examines the air quality patterns in terms of particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in Sandefjord, Norway. PM2.5 was monitored through five low-cost sensors in hourly resolution from November 2021 to August 2023. The sensors’ reliability is high, with consistent PM2.5 measurements and similar variation over time. Occasional extreme PM2.5 was attributed to local contributions with higher values observed during cold months, or specific long-range transport events. Overall, Sandefjord maintained good air quality for most of the measurement period with daily PM2.5 levels below the air quality criteria. Residential heating activities (wood burning) is the most significant local source, being more pronounced during winter.

NILU

2024

Air pollution emission inventory using national high-resolution spatial parameters for the Nordic countries and analysis of PM2.5 spatial distribution for road transport and machinery and off-road sectors

Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Segersson, David; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Vo, Dam Thanh; Kuenen, Jeroen; van der Gon, Hugo Denier; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Brandt, Jørgen; Geels, Camilla

Air pollution is an important cause of adverse health effects, even in the Nordic countries, which have relatively good air quality. Modelling-based air quality assessment of the health impacts relies on reliable model estimates of ambient air pollution concentrations, which furthermore rely on good-quality spatially resolved emission data. While quantitative emission estimates are the cornerstone of good emission data, description of the spatial distribution of the emissions is especially important for local air quality modelling at high resolution. In this paper we present a new air pollution emission inventory for the Nordic countries with high-resolution spatial allocation (1 km × 1 km) covering the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2014. The inventory is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10571094 (Paunu et al., 2023). To study the impact of applying national data and methods to the spatial distribution of the emissions, we compared road transport and machinery and off-road sectors to CAMS-REGv4.2, which used a consistent spatial distribution method throughout Europe for each sector. Road transport is a sector with well-established proxies for spatial distribution, while for the machinery and off-road sector, the choice of proxies is not as straightforward as it includes a variety of different type of vehicles and machines operating in various environments. We found that CAMS-REGv4.2 was able to produce similar spatial patterns to our Nordic inventory for the selected sectors. However, the resolution of our Nordic inventory allows for more detailed impact assessment than CAMS-REGv4.2, which had a resolution of 0.1° × 0.05° (longitude–latitude, roughly 5.5 km × 3.5–6.5 km in the Nordic countries). The EMEP/EEA Guidebook chapter on spatial mapping of emissions has recommendations for the sectoral proxies. Based on our analysis we argue that the guidebook should have separate recommendations for proxies for several sub-categories of the machinery and off-road sectors, instead of including them within broader sectors. We suggest that land use data are the best starting point for proxies for many of the subsectors, and they can be combined with other suitable data to enhance the spatial distribution. For road transport, measured traffic flow data should be utilized where possible, to support modelled data in the proxies.

2024

New insights from an eight-year study on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in an urban terrestrial ecosystem

Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Nygård, Torgeir; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were analysed in a high number of terrestrial samples of soil, earthworm, bird eggs and liver from red fox and brown rat in an urban area in Norway from 2013 to 2020. PFOS and the long chain PFCAs were the most dominating compounds in all samples, proving their ubiquitous distribution. Other less studied compounds such as 6:2 FTS were first and foremost detected in earthworm. 8:2 FTS was found in many samples of fieldfare egg, sparrowhawk egg and earthworm, where the eggs had highest concentrations. Highest concentrations for both 6:2 FTS and 8:2 FTS were detected at present and former industry areas. FOSA was detected in many samples of the species with highest concentrations in red fox liver and brown rat liver of 3.3 and 5.5 ng/g ww.

PFAS concentrations from the urban area were significantly higher than from background areas indicating that some of the species can be suitable as markers for PFAS emissions in an urban environment. Fieldfare eggs had surprisingly high concentrations of PFOS and PFCA concentrations from areas known to be or have been influenced by industry. Biota-soil-accumulation factor and magnification calculations indicate accumulation and magnification potential for several PFAS.

Earthworm and fieldfare egg had average concentrations above the Canadian and European thresholds in diet for avian wildlife and predators. For earthworms, 18 % of the samples exceeded the European threshold (33 ng/g ww) of PFOS in prey for predators, and for fieldfare eggs, 35 % of the samples were above the same threshold. None of the soil samples exceeded a proposed PNEC of PFOS for soil living organisms of 373 ng/g dw.

Elsevier

2024

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