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Eurodelta multi-model simulated and observed particulate matter trends in Europe in the period of 1990–2010

Tsyro, Svetlana; Aas, Wenche; Colette, Augustin; Andersson, Camilla; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Couvidat, Florian; Cuvelier, Kees; Manders, Astrid; Mar, Kathleen; Mircea, Mihaela; Otero, Noelia; Pay, Maria-Teresa; Raffort, Valentin; Roustan, Yelva; Theobald, Mark, R.; Vivanco, Marta García; Fagerli, Hilde; Wind, Peter; Briganti, Gino; Cappelletti, Andrea; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Adani, Mario

The Eurodelta-Trends (EDT) multi-model experiment, aimed at assessing the efficiency of emission mitigation measures in improving air quality in Europe during 1990–2010, was designed to answer a series of questions regarding European pollution trends; i.e. were there significant trends detected by observations? Do the models manage to reproduce observed trends? How close is the agreement between the models and how large are the deviations from observations? In this paper, we address these issues with respect to particulate matter (PM) pollution. An in-depth trend analysis has been performed for PM10 and PM2.5 for the period of 2000–2010, based on results from six chemical transport models and observational data from the EMEP (Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) monitoring network. Given harmonization of set-up and main input data, the differences in model results should mainly result from differences in the process formulations within the models themselves, and the spread in the model-simulated trends could be regarded as an indicator for modelling uncertainty.

The model ensemble simulations indicate overall decreasing trends in PM10 and PM2.5 from 2000 to 2010, with the total reductions of annual mean concentrations by between 2 and 5 (7 for PM10) µg m−3 (or between 10 % and 30 %) across most of Europe (by 0.5–2 µg m−3 in Fennoscandia, the north-west of Russia and eastern Europe) during the studied period. Compared to PM2.5, relative PM10 trends are weaker due to large inter-annual variability of natural coarse PM within the former. The changes in the concentrations of PM individual components are in general consistent with emission reductions. There is reasonable agreement in PM trends estimated by the individual models, with the inter-model variability below 30 %–40 % over most of Europe, increasing to 50 %–60 % in the northern and eastern parts of the EDT domain.

Averaged over measurement sites (26 for PM10 and 13 for PM2.5), the mean ensemble-simulated trends are −0.24 and −0.22 µg m−3 yr−1 for PM10 and PM2.5, which are somewhat weaker than the observed trends of −0.35 and −0.40 µg m−3 yr−1 respectively, partly due to model underestimation of PM concentrations. The correspondence is better in relative PM10 and PM2.5 trends, which are −1.7 % yr−1 and −2.0 % yr−1 from the model ensemble and −2.1 % yr−1 and −2.9 % yr−1 from the observations respectively. The observations identify significant trends (at the 95 % confidence level) for PM10 at 56 % of the sites and for PM2.5 at 36 % of the sites, which is somewhat less that the fractions of significant modelled trends. Further, we find somewhat smaller spatial variability of modelled PM trends with respect to the observed ones across Europe and also within individual countries.

The strongest decreasing PM trends and the largest number of sites with significant trends are found for the summer season, according to both the model ensemble and observations. The winter PM trends are very weak and mostly insignificant. Important reasons for that are the very modest reductions and even increases in the emissions of primary PM from residential heating in winter. It should be kept in mind that all findings regarding modelled versus observed PM trends are limited to the regions where the sites are located.

The analysis reveals considerable variability of the role of the individual aerosols in PM10 trends across European countries. The multi-model simulations, supported by available observations, point to decreases in concentrations playing an overall dominant role. Also, we see...


Mercury in air and soil on an urban-rural transect in East Africa

Nipen, Maja; Jørgensen, Susanne Jøntvedt; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borgå, Katrine; Breivik, Knut; Mmochi, Aviti J; Mwakalapa, Eliezer; Quant, M. Isabel; Schlabach, Martin; Vogt, Rolf David; Wania, Frank

There are large knowledge gaps concerning concentrations, sources, emissions, and spatial trends of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere in developing regions of the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in urban areas. Filling these gaps is a prerequisite for assessing the effectiveness of international regulation and for enabling a better understanding of the global transport of Hg in the environment. Here we use a passive sampling technique to study the spatial distribution of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0), GEM) and assess emission sources in and around Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's largest city. Included in the study were the city's main municipal waste dumpsite and an e-waste processing facility as potential sources of GEM. To complement the GEM data and for a better overview of the Hg contamination status of Dar es Salaam, soil samples were collected from the same locations where passive air samplers were deployed and analysed for total Hg. Overall, GEM concentrations ranged between <0.86 and 5.34 ng m−3, indicating significant local sources within the urban area. The municipal waste dumpsite and e-waste site had GEM concentrations elevated above the background, at 2.41 and 1.77 ng m−3, respectively. Hg concentrations in soil in the region (range 0.0067 to 0.098 mg kg−1) were low compared to those of other urban areas and were not correlated with atmospheric GEM concentrations. This study demonstrates that GEM is a significant environmental issue in the urban region of Dar es Salaam. Further studies from urban areas in the Global South are needed to better identify sources of GEM.

Royal Society of Chemistry


Increasing Trends of Legacy and Emerging Organic Contaminants in a Dated Sediment Core From East-Africa

Nipen, Maja; Vogt, Rolf David; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borgå, Katrine; Mwakalapa, Eliezer; Borgen, Anders; Schlabach, Martin; Christensen, Guttorm; Mmochi, Aviti; Breivik, Knut


Merverdi av samarbeidet i flaggskipet Miljøgifter: How to COPE?

Sunde Krogseth, Ingjerd; Blévin, Pierre; Borch, Trude Kristin; Breivik, Knut; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier; Eckhardt, Sabine; Eulaers, Igor; Evenset, Anita; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Griffith, Gary; Herzke, Dorte; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Routti, Heli Anna Irmeli; Sagerup, Kjetil; Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen; Solbakken, Christine Forsetlund; Verrault, Jonathan; Wania, Frank


Temporal trends of legacy organochlorines in a high Arctic seabird over 15 years: preliminary results

Blévin, Pierre; Chastel, Olivier; Angelier, Frédéric; Bech, Claus; Bustamante, Paco; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte; Goutte, Aurélie; Jouanneau, William; Sunde Krogseth, Ingjerd; Leandri-Breton, Don-Jean; Moe, Børge; Sagerup, Kjetil; Sebastiano, Manrico; Tartu, Sabrina; Eulaers, Igor; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing


Modelling the influence of climate change on contaminant exposure in three key seabird species in the European Arctic

Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen; Eulaers, Igor; Blévin, Pierre; Sagerup, Kjetil; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Eckhardt, Sabine; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Sunde Krogseth, Ingjerd


Modelling organic contaminants in northern ecosystems across time, space and species using the integrated NEM model

Sunde Krogseth, Ingjerd; Breivik, Knut; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nilsen, Bente Merete; Eckhardt, Sabine; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Wania, Frank


ACTRIS – Towards a global research infrastructure

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Saponaro, Giulia; Laj, Paolo G.; Juurola, Eija


CitySatAir: Exploiting Sentinel-5P nitrogen dioxide data for the urban scale

Schneider, Philipp; Mijling, Bas; Hamer, Paul David


Towards near-real-time estimates of greenhouse gas budgets

Ciais, Philippe; Davis, S; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Deng, Z.; Poulter, B.; Chevallier, F; Liu, Z.; Grassi, G.; Thompson, Rona Louise; McKinley, G. A.; Gruber, N.; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Gentine, P.; d'Aspremont, Alexandre; Lauvaux, Thomas


Sentinel-5P based NOx emissions from large combustion plants for comparison with and possibly QA/QC of E-PRTR emissions

Stebel, Kerstin; Schneider, Philipp; Hamer, Paul David; Tarrasón, Leonor; Weydahl, Torleif; Antognazza, Frederico


Synergy of Sentinel 5P and ground measurements to estimate surface NO2 concentration using Machine Learning models

Shetty, Shobitha; Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Hamer, Paul David; Kylling, Arve; Berntsen, Terje Koren


Understand and mitigate impacts of 3D clouds on UV-VIS NO2 trace gas retrievals by AI exploration of synthetic and real data

Kylling, Arve; Emde, Claudia; Yu, Huan; van Roozendael, Michel; Stebel, Kerstin; Mayer, Bernhard


Do Carbon Nanotubes and Asbestos Fibers Exhibit Common Toxicity Mechanisms?

Gupta, Suchi Smita; Singh, Krishna P.; Gupta, Shailendra; Dusinska, Maria; Rahman, Qamar

During the last two decades several nanoscale materials were engineered for industrial and medical applications. Among them carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most exploited nanomaterials with global production of around 1000 tons/year. Besides several commercial benefits of CNTs, the fiber-like structures and their bio-persistency in lung tissues raise serious concerns about the possible adverse human health effects resembling those of asbestos fibers. In this review, we present a comparative analysis between CNTs and asbestos fibers using the following four parameters: (1) fibrous needle-like shape, (2) bio-persistent nature, (3) high surface to volume ratio and (4) capacity to adsorb toxicants/pollutants on the surface. We also compare mechanisms underlying the toxicity caused by certain diameters and lengths of CNTs and asbestos fibers using downstream pathways associated with altered gene expression data from both asbestos and CNT exposure. Our results suggest that indeed certain types of CNTs are emulating asbestos fiber as far as associated toxicity is concerned.



Beregning av korrosjonsklasse fra miljøparametere i Fitjar. Lokasjon (59°56'11.5"N 5°19'58.4"Ø).

Grøntoft, Terje

Korrosjonsklasse ble beregnet på lokasjon (59°56'11.5"N 5°19'58.4"Ø) i Fitjar, Vestland, Norge, fra årsgjennomsnitt for miljøparametere etter ISO 9223 og ISO 12944-2. Det ble funnet at korrosjonsklassen med høy sannsynlighet er C3 og at dette i hovedsak er bestemt av våt-tiden på omtrent 4500 timer/år, som gjennomsnitt i perioden 2007-2022. Dette er godt innenfor grensene for C3 når saltavsetningen er



Microplastics and nanoplastics in the marine-atmosphere environment

Allen, Deonie; Allen, Steve; Abbasi, Sajjad; Baker, Alex; Bergmann, Melanie; Brahney, Janice; Butler, Tim; Duce, Robert; Eckhardt, Sabine; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Jickells, Tim; Kanakidou, Maria; Kershaw, Peter J; Laj, Paolo G.; Levermore, Joseph; Li, Daoji; Liss, Peter; Liu, Kai; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Masque, Pere; Materic, Dusan; Mayes, Andrew G.; McGinnity, Paul; Osvath, Iolanda; Prather, Kimberly A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Revell, Laura E.; Sander, Sylvia G.; Shim, Won Joon; Slade, Jonathan; Stein, Ariel F.; Wright, Stephanie


Risk assessment of consumer spray products using in vitro lung surfactant function inhibition, exposure modelling and chemical analysis

Sørli, J.B.; Sengupta, S.; Jensen, A.C.O.; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Clausen, P.A.; Hougaard, K.S.; Højriis, Sara; Frederiksen, M.; Hadrup, N.

Consumer spray products release aerosols that can potentially be inhaled and reach the deep parts of the lungs. A thin layer of liquid, containing a mixture of proteins and lipids known as lung surfactant, coats the alveoli. Inhibition of lung surfactant function can lead to acute loss of lung function. We focused on two groups of spray products; 8 cleaning and 13 impregnation products, and in the context of risk assessment, used an in vitro method for assessing inhibition of lung surfactant function. Original spray-cans were used to generate aerosols to measure aerodynamic particle size distribution. We recreated a real-life exposure scenario to estimate the alveolar deposited dose. Most impregnation products inhibited lung surfactant function at the lowest aerosolization rate, whereas only two cleaning products inhibited function at the highest rates. We used inhibitory dose and estimated alveolar deposition to calculate the margin of safety (MoS). The MoS for the inhibitory products was ≤1 for the impregnation products, while much larger for the cleaning products (>880). This risk assessment focused on the risk of lung surfactant function disruption and provides knowledge on an endpoint of lung toxicity that is not investigated by the currently available OECD test guidelines.



Model evaluation of short-lived climate forcers for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme: a multi-species, multi-model study

Whaley, Cynthia; Mahmood, Rashed; von Salzen, Knut; Winter, Barbara; Eckhardt, Sabine; Arnold, Stephen R.; Beagley, Stephen; Becagli, Silvia; Chien, Rong-You; Christensen, Jesper; Damani, Sujay Manish; Dong, Xinyi; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Faluvegi, Gregory; Flanner, Mark G.; Fu, Joshua S.; Gauss, Michael; Giardi, Fabio; Gong, Wanmin; Hjorth, Jens Liengaard; Huang, Lin; Im, Ulas; Kanaya, Yugo; Srinath, Krishnan; Klimont, Zbigniew; Kuhn, Thomas; Langner, Joakim; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Massling, Andreas; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Onishi, Tatsuo; Oshima, Naga; Peng, Yiran; Plummer, David A.; Pozzoli, Luca; Popovicheva, Olga; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Sand, Maria; Saunders, Laura; Schmale, Julia; Sharma, Sangeeta; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Skov, Henrik; Taketani, Fumikazu; Thomas, Manu Anna; Traversi, Rita; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tsyro, Svetlana; Turnock, Steven T; Vitale, Vito; Walker, Kaley A.; Wang, Minqi; Watson-Parris, Duncan; Weiss-Gibbons, Tahya

While carbon dioxide is the main cause for global warming, modeling short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as methane, ozone, and particles in the Arctic allows us to simulate near-term climate and health impacts for a sensitive, pristine region that is warming at 3 times the global rate. Atmospheric modeling is critical for understanding the long-range transport of pollutants to the Arctic, as well as the abundance and distribution of SLCFs throughout the Arctic atmosphere. Modeling is also used as a tool to determine SLCF impacts on climate and health in the present and in future emissions scenarios.

In this study, we evaluate 18 state-of-the-art atmospheric and Earth system models by assessing their representation of Arctic and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric SLCF distributions, considering a wide range of different chemical species (methane, tropospheric ozone and its precursors, black carbon, sulfate, organic aerosol, and particulate matter) and multiple observational datasets. Model simulations over 4 years (2008–2009 and 2014–2015) conducted for the 2022 Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) SLCF assessment report are thoroughly evaluated against satellite, ground, ship, and aircraft-based observations. The annual means, seasonal cycles, and 3-D distributions of SLCFs were evaluated using several metrics, such as absolute and percent model biases and correlation coefficients. The results show a large range in model performance, with no one particular model or model type performing well for all regions and all SLCF species. The multi-model mean (mmm) was able to represent the general features of SLCFs in the Arctic and had the best overall performance. For the SLCFs with the greatest radiative impact (CH4, O3, BC, and SO), the mmm was within ±25 % of the measurements across the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we recommend a multi-model ensemble be used for simulating climate and health impacts of SLCFs.

Of the SLCFs in our study, model biases were smallest for CH4 and greatest for OA. For most SLCFs, model biases skewed from positive to negative with increasing latitude. Our analysis suggests that vertical mixing, long-range transport, deposition, and wildfires remain highly uncertain processes. These processes need better representation within atmospheric models to improve their simulation of SLCFs in the Arctic environment. As model development proceeds in these areas, we highly recommend that the vertical and 3-D distribution of SLCFs be evaluated, as that information is critical to improving the uncertain processes in models.


Siberian Arctic black carbon: gas flaring and wildfire impact

Popovicheva, Olga; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Chichaeva, M. A.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Gregorič, Asta; Kasimov, Nikolay

As explained in the latest Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) report released in early 2021, the Arctic has warmed 3 times more quickly than the planet as a whole, as well as faster than previously thought. The Siberian Arctic is of great interest mainly because observations are sparse or largely lacking. A research aerosol station has been developed on Bely Island (Kara Sea) in western Siberia. Measurements of equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations were carried out at the “Island Bely” station continuously from August 2019 to November 2020. The source origin of the measured EBC and the main contributing sources were assessed using atmospheric transport modeling coupled with the most updated emission inventories for anthropogenic and biomass burning sources of BC.

The obtained climatology for BC during the period of measurements showed an apparent seasonal variation with the highest concentrations between December and April (60 ± 92 ng m−3) and the lowest between June and September (18 ± 72 ng m−3), typical of the Arctic haze seasonality reported elsewhere. When air masses arrived at the station through the biggest oil and gas extraction regions of Kazakhstan, Volga-Ural, Komi, Nenets and western Siberia, BC contribution from gas flaring dominated over domestic, industrial and traffic sectors, ranging from 47 % to 68 %, with a maximum contribution in January. When air was transported from Europe during the cold season, emissions from transportation were more important. Accordingly, shipping emissions increased due to the touristic cruise activities and the ice retreat in summertime. Biomass burning (BB) played the biggest role between April and October, contributing 81 % at maximum in July. Long-range transport of BB aerosols appeared to induce large variability to the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) with values > 1.0 (excluding outliers). As regards the continental contribution to surface BC at the Island Bely station, Russian emissions dominated during the whole year, while European and Asian ones contributed up to 20 % in the cold period. Quantification of several pollution episodes showed an increasing trend in surface concentrations and frequency during the cold period as the station is directly in the Siberian gateway of the highest anthropogenic pollution sources to the Russian Arctic.


Comparing national greenhouse gas budgets reported in UNFCCC inventories against atmospheric inversions

Deng, Zhu; Ciais, Philippe; Tzompa-Sosa, Zitely A.; Saunois, Marielle; Qiu, Chunjing; Tan, Chang; Sun, Taochun; Ke, Piyu; Cui, Yanan; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Lin, Xin; Thompson, Rona Louise; Tian, Hanqin; Yao, Yuanzhi; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lauerwald, Ronny; Jain, Atul K.; Xu, Xiaoming; Bastos, Ana; Palmer, Paul I.; Lauvaux, Thomas; d'Aspremont, Alexandre; Giron, Clément; Benoit, Antoine; Poulter, Benjamin; Chang, Jinfeng; Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Davis, Steven J; Liu, Zhu; Grassi, Giacomo; Albergel, Clement; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Perugini, Lucia; Peters, Wouter; Chevallier, Frederic

In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, this study presents a comprehensive framework to process the results of an ensemble of atmospheric inversions in order to make their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) carbon dioxide (CO2) flux suitable for evaluating national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) submitted by countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). From inversions we also deduced anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions regrouped into fossil and agriculture and waste emissions, as well as anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To compare inversion results with national reports, we compiled a new global harmonized database of emissions and removals from periodical UNFCCC inventories by Annex I countries, and from sporadic and less detailed emissions reports by non-Annex I countries, given by national communications and biennial update reports. No gap filling was applied. The method to reconcile inversions with inventories is applied to selected large countries covering ∼90 % of the global land carbon uptake for CO2 and top emitters of CH4 and N2O. Our method uses results from an ensemble of global inversions produced by the Global Carbon Project for the three greenhouse gases, with ancillary data. We examine the role of CO2 fluxes caused by lateral transfer processes from rivers and from trade in crop and wood products and the role of carbon uptake in unmanaged lands, both not accounted for by NGHGIs. Here we show that, despite a large spread across the inversions, the median of available inversion models points to a larger terrestrial carbon sink than inventories over temperate countries or groups of countries of the Northern Hemisphere like Russia, Canada and the European Union. For CH4, we find good consistency between the inversions assimilating only data from the global in situ network and those using satellite CH4 retrievals and a tendency for inversions to diagnose higher CH4 emission estimates than reported by NGHGIs. In particular, oil- and gas-extracting countries in central Asia and the Persian Gulf region tend to systematically report lower emissions compared to those estimated by inversions. For N2O, inversions tend to produce higher anthropogenic emissions than inventories for tropical countries, even when attempting to consider only managed land emissions. In the inventories of many non-Annex I countries, this can be tentatively attributed to a lack of reporting indirect N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition and from leaching to rivers, to the existence of natural sources intertwined with managed lands, or to an underestimation of N2O emission factors for direct agricultural soil emissions. Inversions provide insights into seasonal and interannual greenhouse gas fluxes anomalies, e.g., during extreme events such as drought or abnormal fire episodes, whereas inventory methods are established to estimate trends and multi-annual changes. As a much denser sampling of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations by different satellites coordinated into a global constellation is expected in the coming years, the methodology proposed here to compare inversion results with inventory reports (e.g., NGHGIs) could be applied regularly for monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation policy and progress by countries to meet the objective of their pledges. The dataset constructed by this study is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5089799 (Deng et al., 2021).


A pooled analysis of molecular epidemiological studies on modulation of DNA repair by host factors

Opattová, Alena; Langie, Sabine A.S.; Milic, Mirta; Collins, Andrew Richard; Brevik, Asgeir; Dusinska, Maria; Coskun, Erdem; Gaivao, Isabel; Kadioglu, Ela; Laffon, Blanca; Marcos, Ricard; Pastor, Susana; Slyskova, Jana; Smolkova, Bozena ; Szilagyi, Zsofia; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Vodicka, Pavel; Volkovova, Katarina ; Godschalk, Roger W.L.

Levels of DNA damage represent the dynamics between damage formation and removal. Therefore, to better interpret human biomonitoring studies with DNA damage endpoints, an individual’s ability to recognize and properly remove DNA damage should be characterized. Relatively few studies have included DNA repair as a biomarker and therefore, assembling and analyzing a pooled database of studies with data on base excision repair (BER) was one of the goals of hCOMET (EU-COST CA15132). A group of approximately 1911 individuals, was gathered from 8 laboratories which run population studies with the comet-based in vitro DNA repair assay. BER incision activity data were normalized and subsequently correlated with various host factors. BER was found to be significantly higher in women. Although it is generally accepted that age is inversely related to DNA repair, no overall effect of age was found, but sex differences were most pronounced in the oldest quartile (>61 years). No effect of smoking or occupational exposures was found. A body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2 was related to higher levels of BER. However, when BMI exceeded 35 kg/m2, repair incision activity was significantly lower. Finally, higher BER incision activity was related to lower levels of DNA damage detected by the comet assay in combination with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which is in line with the fact that oxidatively damaged DNA is repaired by BER. These data indicate that BER plays a role in modulating the steady-state level of DNA damage that is detected in molecular epidemiological studies and should therefore be considered as a parallel endpoint in future studies.


Correspondence regarding the Perspective “Addressing the importance of microplastic particles as vectors for long-range transport of chemical contaminants: perspective in relation to prioritizing research and regulatory actions”

Glüge, Juliane; Ashta, Narain Maharaj; Herzke, Dorte; Lebreton, Laurent; Scheringer, Martin

Important clarifications regarding the long-range environmental transport of chemical additives contained in floating plastic debris are presented.



First documentation of plastic ingestion in the arctic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)

Benjaminsen, Stine Charlotte; Bourgeon, Sophie; Herzke, Dorte; Ask, Amalie; Collard, France; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

Arctic wildlife is facing multiple stressors, including increasing plastic pollution. Seabirds are intrinsic to marine ecosystems, but most seabird populations are declining. We lack knowledge on plastic ingestion in many arctic seabird species, and there is an urgent need for more information to enable risk assessment and monitoring. Our study aimed to investigate the occurrence of plastics in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding on Svalbard. The glaucous gull is a sentinel species for the health of the arctic marine ecosystem, but there have been no studies investigating plastic occurrence in this species since 1994. As a surface feeder and generalist living in an area with high human activity on Svalbard, we expected to find plastic in its stomach. We investigated for plastic >1 mm and documented plastic ingestion for the first time in glaucous gulls, with a frequency of occurrence of 14.3% (n = 21). The plastics were all identified as user plastics and consisted of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Our study provides new quantitative and qualitative data on plastic burden and polymer type reported in a standardized manner establishing a reference point for future research and monitoring of arctic gulls on national and international levels.