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Presentasjon av NILU for Romerike batteriverk

Guerreiro, Cristina; Bogra, Shelly

2022

Modeling products for ACTRIS users

Evangeliou, Nikolaos

2022

The influence of photochemistry on outdoor to indoor NO2 in some European museums

Grøntoft, Terje

This paper reports 1 year of monthly average NO2 indoor to outdoor (I/O) concentrations measured in 10 European museums, and a simple steady-state box model that explains the annual variation. The measurements were performed in the EU FP5 project Master (EVK-CT-2002-00093). The work provides extensive documentation of the annual variation of NO2 I/O concentration ratios, with ratios above unity in the summer, in situations with no indoor emissions of NO2. The modelling included the most relevant production and removal processes of NO2 and showed that the outdoor photolysis was the probable main explanation of the annual trends in the NO2 I/O concentration ratios.

John Wiley & Sons

2022

Is Glacial Meltwater a Secondary Source of Legacy Contaminants to Arctic Coastal Food Webs?

Mcgovern, Maeve; Warner, Nicholas Alexander; Borgå, Katrine; Evenset, Anita; Carlsson, Pernilla; Skogsberg, Emelie; Søreide, Janne; Ruus, Anders; Christensen, Guttorm; Poste, Amanda

2022

Synergistic exploitation of the methane product from Sentinel-SP for applications in the Arctic (STEPS)

Stebel, Kerstin; Kylling, Arve; Schneider, Philipp; Ytre-Eide, Martin

The main goal of this feasibility study was to evaluate the potential of adding value to the Sentinel 5P TROPOMI methane product over Norway and the Arctic through the synergistic use of relevant observations from other Sentinel satellites and machine learning. We assessed the data availability of ESA operational and research-based WFMD XCH4 products over the Northern hemisphere, the Nordic countries and the Arctic/Northern latitudes. ESA’s XCH4 data have poor coverage over Norway. Seeing the two datasets as complementary, seems to be the most reasonable approach for utilization them. Furthermore, we investigated potential synergies between satellite products from different platforms. A random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm was implemented. It shows the importance of daytime land surface temperature (LST) as predictor variable for CH4. Our results indicate that the RF-model has a very good capability of filling small gaps in the data.

NILU

2022

Health impacts of PM2.5 originating from residential wood combustion in four nordic cities

Orru, Hans; Olstrup, Henrik; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Segersson, David; Geels, Camilla; Tamm, Tanel; Riikonen, Kari; Maragkidou, Androniki; Sigsgaard, Torben; Brandt, Jørgen; Grythe, Henrik; Forsberg, Bertil

Residential wood combustion (RWC) is one of the largest sources of fine particles (PM2.5) in the Nordic cities. The current study aims to calculate the related health effects in four studied city areas in Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark.

BioMed Central (BMC)

2022

European Registry of Materials: global, unique identifiers for (undisclosed) nanomaterials

van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Afantitis, Antreas; Culha, Mustafa; Dusinska, Maria; Exner, Thomas E.; Jeliazkova, Nina; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Lynch, Iseult; Melagraki, Georgia; Nymark, Penny; Papadiamantis, Anastasios; Winkler, David A.; Yilmaz, Hulya; Willighagen, Egon

Management of nanomaterials and nanosafety data needs to operate under the FAIR (findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability) principles and this requires a unique, global identifier for each nanomaterial. Existing identifiers may not always be applicable or sufficient to definitively identify the specific nanomaterial used in a particular study, resulting in the use of textual descriptions in research project communications and reporting. To ensure that internal project documentation can later be linked to publicly released data and knowledge for the specific nanomaterials, or even to specific batches and variants of nanomaterials utilised in that project, a new identifier is proposed: the European Registry of Materials Identifier. We here describe the background to this new identifier, including FAIR interoperability as defined by FAIRSharing, identifiers.org, Bioregistry, and the CHEMINF ontology, and show how it complements other identifiers such as CAS numbers and the ongoing efforts to extend the InChI identifier to cover nanomaterials. We provide examples of its use in various H2020-funded nanosafety projects.

2022

Influence of aerosol-radiation interactions on air pollution in East Asia

Hodnebrog, Øivind; Stjern, Camilla Weum; Marelle, Louis; Myhre, Gunnar; Pisso, Ignacio; Wang, Shuxiao

2022

In vivo Mammalian Alkaline Comet Assay: Method Adapted for Genotoxicity Assessment of Nanomaterials

Cardoso, Renato; Dusinska, Maria; Collins, Andrew Richard; Manjanatha, Mugamane; Pfuhler, Stefan; Registre, Marilyn; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

The in vivo Comet assay measures the generation of DNA strand breaks under conditions in which the DNA will unwind and migrate to the anode in an electrophoresis assay, producing comet-like figures. Measurements are on single cells, which allows the sampling of a diversity of cells and tissues for DNA damaging effects. The Comet assay is the most common in vivo method for genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials (NM). The Method outlined here includes a recommended step-by-step approach, consistent with OECD 489, taking into consideration the issues impacting assessment of NM, including choice of cells or systems, handling of NM test articles, dose determination, assay methods and data assessment. This method is designed to be used along with the accompanying “Common Considerations” paper, which discusses issues common to any genotoxicity assay using NM as a test article.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes in 2021. Annual report.

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Svendby, Tove Marit; Hermansen, Ove; Lunder, Chris Rene; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Fiebig, Markus; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Hansen, Georg H.; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Stebel, Kerstin

This annual report for 2021 summarizes the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin Observatory, situated on Svalbard, during the period 2001-2021, and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2009-2021.

NILU

2022

Multisensory Representation of Air Pollution in Virtual Reality: Lessons from Visual Representation

Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Swidrak, Justyna; Kopec, Wieslaw; Jedrzejewski, Zbigniew; Feledyn, Agata; Vogt, Matthias; Castell, Nuria; Zagorska, Katarzyna

The world is facing the problem of anthropogenic climate
change and air pollution. Despite many years of development, already
established methods of influencing behaviour remain ineffective. The
effect of such interventions is very often a declaration of behaviour change
that is not followed by actual action. Moreover, despite intensive informa-
tion campaigns, many people still do not have adequate knowledge on the
subject, are not aware of the problem or, worse, deny its existence. Pre-
vious attempts to introduce real change were based on providing infor-
mation, persuasion or visualisation. We propose the use of multi-sensory
virtual reality to investigate the problem more thoroughly and then design
appropriate solutions. In this paper, we introduce a new immersive virtual
environment that combines free exploration with a high level of experi-
mental control, physiological and behavioural measures. It was created on
the basis of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation, participatory design
and research. We used the unique features of virtual environments to
reverse and expand the idea of pollution pods by Pinsky. Instead of closing
participants in small domes filled with chemical substances imitating pol-
lution, we made it possible for them to freely explore an open environment
- admiring the panorama of a small town from the observation deck located
on a nearby hill. Virtual reality technology enables the manipulation of
representations of air pollution, the sensory modalities with which they are
transmitted (visual, auditory, tactile and smell stimuli) and their intensity.
Participants’ reactions from the initial tests of the application showed that
it is a promising solution. We present the possibilities of applying the new
solution in psychological research and its further design and development
opportunities in collaboration with communities and other stakeholders
in the spirit of citizen science.

2022

Machine Learning-Based Digital Twin for Predictive Modeling in Wind Turbines

Fahim, Muhammad; Sharma, Vishal; Cao, Tuan-Vu; Canberk, Berk; Duong, Trung Q.

Wind turbines are one of the primary sources of renewable energy, which leads to a sustainable and efficient energy solution. It does not release any carbon emissions to pollute our planet. The wind farms monitoring and power generation prediction is a complex problem due to the unpredictability of wind speed. Consequently, it limits the decision power of the management team to plan the energy consumption in an effective way. Our proposed model solves this challenge by utilizing a 5G-Next Generation-Radio Access Network (5G-NG-RAN) assisted cloud-based digital twins’ framework to virtually monitor wind turbines and form a predictive model to forecast wind speed and predict the generated power. The developed model is based on Microsoft Azure digital twins infrastructure as a 5-dimensional digital twins platform. The predictive modeling is based on a deep learning approach, temporal convolution network (TCN) followed by a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor (kNN) regression. Predictive modeling has two components. First, it processes the univariate time series data of wind to predict its speed. Secondly, it estimates the power generation for each quarter of the year ranges from one week to a whole month (i.e., medium-term prediction) To evaluate the framework the experiments are performed on onshore wind turbines publicly available datasets. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed framework. Furthermore, the comparative analysis with the existing classical prediction models shows that our designed approach obtained better results. The model can assist the management team to monitor the wind farms remotely as well as estimate the power generation in advance.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

2022

Microplastics and nanoplastics in the marine-atmosphere environment

Allen, Deonie; Allen, Steve; Abbasi, Sajjad; Baker, Alex; Bergmann, Melanie; Brahney, Janice; Butler, Tim; Duce, Robert; Eckhardt, Sabine; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Jickells, Tim; Kanakidou, Maria; Kershaw, Peter J; Laj, Paolo G.; Levermore, Joseph; Li, Daoji; Liss, Peter; Liu, Kai; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Masque, Pere; Materic, Dusan; Mayes, Andrew G.; McGinnity, Paul; Osvath, Iolanda; Prather, Kimberly A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Revell, Laura E.; Sander, Sylvia G.; Shim, Won Joon; Slade, Jonathan; Stein, Ariel F.; Wright, Stephanie

The discovery of atmospheric micro(nano)plastic transport and ocean–atmosphere exchange points to a highly complex marine plastic cycle, with negative implications for human and ecosystem health. Yet, observations are currently limited. In this Perspective, we quantify the processes and fluxes of the marine-atmospheric micro(nano)plastic cycle, with the aim of highlighting the remaining unknowns in atmospheric micro(nano)plastic transport. Between 0.013 and 25 million metric tons per year of micro(nano)plastics are potentially being transported within the marine atmosphere and deposited in the oceans. However, the high uncertainty in these marine-atmospheric fluxes is related to data limitations and a lack of study intercomparability. To address the uncertainties and remaining knowledge gaps in the marine-atmospheric micro(nano)plastic cycle, we propose a future global marine-atmospheric micro(nano)plastic observation strategy, incorporating novel sampling methods and the creation of a comparable, harmonized and global data set. Together with long-term observations and intensive investigations, this strategy will help to define the trends in marine-atmospheric pollution and any responses to future policy and management actions.

2022

Temporal Trends of Organochlorine and Perfluorinated Contaminants in a Terrestrial Raptor in Northern Europe Over 34 years (1986–2019)

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Herzke, Dorte; Bangjord, Georg; Bourgeon, Sophie; Fritsch, Clémentine; Eulaers, Igor

Fourteen legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants and 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in eggs of tawny owls (Strix alueco) in central Norway (1986–2019). We expected OCs to have reached stable equilibrium levels due to bans, and that recent phase-out of some PFASs would have slowed the increase of these compounds. ∑OC comprised on average approximately 92% of the measured compounds, whereas ∑PFAS accounted for approximately 8%. However, whereas the ∑OC to ∑PFAS ratio was approximately 60 in the first 5 years of the study, it was only approximately 11 in the last 5 years. Both OC pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed substantial declines over the study period (~85%–98%): hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordanes seemed to be levelling off, whereas p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlororbenzene (HCB), and most PCB congeners still seemed to decline at a more or less constant rate. While the concentration of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominating PFAS, was reduced by approximately 43%, other perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) showed only minor changes. Moreover, the median concentrations of seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) increased approximately five-fold over the study period. Perfluorononanoic acid and perfluoroundecanoate acid, however, seemed to be levelling off in recent years. In contrast, perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorodecanoate acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid seemed to increase more or less linearily. Finally, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was increasingly likely to be detected over the study period. Hence, most legacy OCs and PFOS have not reached a lower threshold with stable background levels, and voluntary elimination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates still has not resulted in declining levels in tawny owls in central Norway.

Pergamon Press

2022

Plastic ingestion and associated additives in Faroe Islands chicks of the Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis

Collard, France; Leconte, Simon; Danielsen, Jóhannis; Halsband, Claudia; Herzke, Dorte; Harju, Mikael; Tulatz, Felix; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Tarroux, Arnaud

Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) are a pelagic seabird species distributed at northern and polar latitudes. They are often used as an indicator of plastic pollution in the North Sea region, but data are lacking from higher latitudes, especially when it comes to chicks. Here, we investigated amounts of ingested plastic and their characteristics in fulmar chicks from the Faroe Islands. Plastic particles (≥1 ​mm) in chicks of two age classes were searched using a digestion method with KOH. In addition, to evaluate if additive tissue burden reflects plastic ingestion, we measured liver tissue concentrations of two pollutant classes associated with plastic materials: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and several dechloranes, using gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most common shape was hard fragment (81%) and the most common polymer was polyethylene (73%). Plastic contamination did not differ between either age class, and we found no correlation between neither the amount and mass of plastic particles and the concentration of additives. After comparison with previous studies on adult fulmars, we do not recommend using chicks for biomonitoring adults because chicks seem to ingest more plastics than adults.

Elsevier

2022

Nord Stream leak may have been largest methane emission ever recorded

Thompson, Rona Louise; Platt, Stephen Matthew (intervjuobjekter); Dinneen, James (journalist)

2022

Constraining black carbon emissions from wildfires and anthropogenic sources at contrasting Canadian sites

Lynch, Jada; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Wendy; Eckhardt, Sabine; Chang, Rachel

2022

Slik jobber klimaforskere som detektiver

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Lunder, Chris Rene (intervjuobjekter); Hagel, Sebastian; Borgan, Eldrid (journalister)

2022

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