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Differences in Trophic Level, Contaminant Load, and DNA Damage in an Urban and a Remote Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Breeding Colony in Coastal Norway

Keilen, Ellen Kristine; Borgå, Katrine; Thorstensen, Helene Skjeie; Hylland, Ketil; Helberg, Morten; Warner, Nicholas Alexander; Bæk, Kine; Reiertsen, Tone Kristin; Ruus, Anders

Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) are opportunistic feeders, resulting in contaminant exposure depending on area and habitat. We compared contaminant concentrations and dietary markers between two herring gull breeding colonies with different distances to extensive human activity and presumed contaminant exposure from the local marine diet. Furthermore, we investigated the integrity of DNA in white blood cells and sensitivity to oxidative stress. We analyzed blood from 15 herring gulls from each colony—the urban Oslofjord near the Norwegian capital Oslo in the temperate region and the remote Hornøya island in northern Norway, on the Barents Sea coast. Based on d13C and d34S, the dietary sources of urban gulls differed, with some individuals having a marine and others a more terrestrial dietary signal. All remote gulls had a marine dietary signal and higher relative trophic level than the urban marine feeding gulls. Concentrations (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of most persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were higher in urban marine (PCB153 17 ± 17 ng/g wet weight, PFOS 25 ± 21 ng/g wet wt) than urban terrestrial feeders (PCB153 3.7 ± 2.4 ng/g wet wt, PFOS 6.7 ± 10 ng/g wet wt). Despite feeding at a higher trophic level (d15N), the remote gulls (PCB153 17 ± 1221 ng/g wet wt, PFOS 19 ± 1421 ng/g wet wt) were similar to the urban marine feeders. Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes were detected in only a few gulls, except for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in the urban colony, which was found in 12 of 13 gulls. Only hexachlorobenzene was present in higher concentrations in the remote (2.6 ± 0.42 ng/g wet wt) compared with the urban colony (0.34 ± 0.33 ng/g wet wt). Baseline and induced DNA damage (doublestreak breaks) was higher in urban than in remote gulls for both terrestrial and marine feeders.

Pergamon Press

2022

An actionable annotation scoring framework for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Xie, Hongyu; Price, Elliott J.; Lin, Elizabeth; Manz, Katherine E.; Stelben, Paul J.; Paige, Matthew K.; Papazian, Stefano; Okeme, Joseph; Rostkowski, Pawel Marian; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Wang, Thanh; Hu, Xin; Lai, Yunjia; Miller, Gary W.; Walker, Douglas; Martin, Jonathan W.; Pollitt, Krystal J. Godri

Omics-based technologies have enabled comprehensive characterization of our exposure to environmental chemicals (chemical exposome) as well as assessment of the corresponding biological responses at the molecular level (eg, metabolome, lipidome, proteome, and genome). By systematically measuring personal exposures and linking these stimuli to biological perturbations, researchers can determine specific chemical exposures of concern, identify mechanisms and biomarkers of toxicity, and design interventions to reduce exposures. However, further advancement of metabolomics and exposomics approaches is limited by a lack of standardization and approaches for assigning confidence to chemical annotations. While a wealth of chemical data is generated by gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), incorporating GC-HRMS data into an annotation framework and communicating confidence in these assignments is challenging. It is essential to be able to compare chemical data for exposomics studies across platforms to build upon prior knowledge and advance the technology. Here, we discuss the major pieces of evidence provided by common GC-HRMS workflows, including retention time and retention index, electron ionization, positive chemical ionization, electron capture negative ionization, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization spectral matching, molecular ion, accurate mass, isotopic patterns, database occurrence, and occurrence in blanks. We then provide a qualitative framework for incorporating these various lines of evidence for communicating confidence in GC-HRMS data by adapting the Schymanski scoring schema developed for reporting confidence levels by liquid chromatography HRMS (LC-HRMS). Validation of our framework is presented using standards spiked in plasma, and confident annotations in outdoor and indoor air samples, showing a false-positive rate of 12% for suspect screening for chemical identifications assigned as Level 2 (when structurally similar isomers are not considered false positives). This framework is easily adaptable to various workflows and provides a concise means to communicate confidence in annotations. Further validation, refinements, and adoption of this framework will ideally lead to harmonization across the field, helping to improve the quality and interpretability of compound annotations obtained in GC-HRMS.

2022

Slik jobber klimaforskere som detektiver

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Lunder, Chris Rene (intervjuobjekter); Hagel, Sebastian; Borgan, Eldrid (journalister)

2022

Elucidating the present-day chemical composition, seasonality and source regions of climate-relevant aerosols across the Arctic land surface

Moschos, Vaios; Schmale, Julia; Aas, Wenche; Becagli, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Moffett, Claire E.; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Severi, Mirko; Sharma, Sangeeta; Skov, Henrik; Vestenius, Mika; Zhang, Wendy; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Huang, Lin; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Petäjä, Tuukka; Popovicheva, Olga; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Traversi, Rita; Yttri, Karl Espen; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; El Haddad, Imad

The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the global average, and the role of aerosols is not well constrained. Aerosol number concentrations can be very low in remote environments, rendering local cloud radiative properties highly sensitive to available aerosol. The composition and sources of the climate-relevant aerosols, affecting Arctic cloud formation and altering their microphysics, remain largely elusive due to a lack of harmonized concurrent multi-component, multi-site, and multi-season observations. Here, we present a dataset on the overall chemical composition and seasonal variability of the Arctic total particulate matter (with a size cut at 10 μm, PM10, or without any size cut) at eight observatories representing all Arctic sectors. Our holistic observational approach includes the Russian Arctic, a significant emission source area with less dedicated aerosol monitoring, and extends beyond the more traditionally studied summer period and black carbon/sulfate or fine-mode pollutants. The major airborne Arctic PM components in terms of dry mass are sea salt, secondary (non-sea-salt, nss) sulfate, and organic aerosol (OA), with minor contributions from elemental carbon (EC) and ammonium. We observe substantial spatiotemporal variability in component ratios, such as EC/OA, ammonium/nss-sulfate and OA/nss-sulfate, and fractional contributions to PM. When combined with component-specific back-trajectory analysis to identify marine or terrestrial origins, as well as the companion study by Moschos et al 2022 Nat. Geosci. focusing on OA, the composition analysis provides policy-guiding observational insights into sector-based differences in natural and anthropogenic Arctic aerosol sources. In this regard, we first reveal major source regions of inner-Arctic sea salt, biogenic sulfate, and natural organics, and highlight an underappreciated wintertime source of primary carbonaceous aerosols (EC and OA) in West Siberia, potentially associated with the oil and gas sector. The presented dataset can assist in reducing uncertainties in modelling pan-Arctic aerosol-climate interactions, as the major contributors to yearly aerosol mass can be constrained. These models can then be used to predict the future evolution of individual inner-Arctic atmospheric PM components in light of current and emerging pollution mitigation measures and improved region-specific emission inventories.

2022

Synergistic exploitation of the methane product from Sentinel-SP for applications in the Arctic (STEPS)

Stebel, Kerstin; Kylling, Arve; Schneider, Philipp; Ytre-Eide, Martin

The main goal of this feasibility study was to evaluate the potential of adding value to the Sentinel 5P TROPOMI methane product over Norway and the Arctic through the synergistic use of relevant observations from other Sentinel satellites and machine learning. We assessed the data availability of ESA operational and research-based WFMD XCH4 products over the Northern hemisphere, the Nordic countries and the Arctic/Northern latitudes. ESA’s XCH4 data have poor coverage over Norway. Seeing the two datasets as complementary, seems to be the most reasonable approach for utilization them. Furthermore, we investigated potential synergies between satellite products from different platforms. A random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm was implemented. It shows the importance of daytime land surface temperature (LST) as predictor variable for CH4. Our results indicate that the RF-model has a very good capability of filling small gaps in the data.

NILU

2022

Health impacts of PM2.5 originating from residential wood combustion in four nordic cities

Orru, Hans; Olstrup, Henrik; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Segersson, David; Geels, Camilla; Tamm, Tanel; Riikonen, Kari; Maragkidou, Androniki; Sigsgaard, Torben; Brandt, Jørgen; Grythe, Henrik; Forsberg, Bertil

Residential wood combustion (RWC) is one of the largest sources of fine particles (PM2.5) in the Nordic cities. The current study aims to calculate the related health effects in four studied city areas in Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark.

BioMed Central (BMC)

2022

Grenseområdene Norge-Russland. Luft- og nedbørkvalitet 2021.

Berglen, Tore Flatlandsmo; Nilsen, Anne-Cathrine; Vadset, Marit; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Hak, Claudia; Andresen, Erik

Smelteverkene i nordvest-Russland slapp tidligere ut store mengder svoveldioksid (SO2) og tungmetaller. Utslippene påvirket luft- og nedbørkvalitet i grenseområdene. Smelteverket i Nikel stengte ned 23. desember 2020 og lokal luftkvalitet ble betydelig forbedret. Dog er det fortsatt utslipp fra varmekraftverket i Nikel i den kalde årstiden. Detaljer rundt utslippene fra Zapoljarnyj er ikke kjente. Herværende rapport viser resultatene for kalenderåret 2021, det vil si året etter stengningen. Nivåene av forurensning er lave og grenseverdier og målsettingsverdier er overholdt med klar margin.

NILU

2022

Frequency of occurrence of plastic in six seabird species presenting different feeding ecology sampled in Norway and Svalbard

Benjaminsen, Stine Charlotte; Bourgeon, Sophie; Herzke, Dorte; Collard, France; Ask, Amalie; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

2022

Robust evidence for reversal of the trend in aerosol effective climate forcing

Quaas, Johannes; Jia, Hailing; Smith, Chris; Albright, Anna Lea; Aas, Wenche; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Forster, Piers M.; Grosvenor, Daniel; Jenkins, Stuart; Klimont, Zbigniew; Loeb, Norman G.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Naik, Vaishali; Paulot, Fabien; Stier, Philip; Wild, Martin; Myhre, Gunnar; Schulz, Michael

Anthropogenic aerosols exert a cooling influence that offsets part of the greenhouse gas warming. Due to their short tropospheric lifetime of only several days, the aerosol forcing responds quickly to emissions. Here, we present and discuss the evolution of the aerosol forcing since 2000. There are multiple lines of evidence that allow us to robustly conclude that the anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) – both aerosol–radiation interactions (ERFari) and aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci) – has become less negative globally, i.e. the trend in aerosol effective radiative forcing changed sign from negative to positive. Bottom-up inventories show that anthropogenic primary aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions declined in most regions of the world; observations related to aerosol burden show declining trends, in particular of the fine-mode particles that make up most of the anthropogenic aerosols; satellite retrievals of cloud droplet numbers show trends in regions with aerosol declines that are consistent with these in sign, as do observations of top-of-atmosphere radiation. Climate model results, including a revised set that is constrained by observations of the ocean heat content evolution show a consistent sign and magnitude for a positive forcing relative to the year 2000 due to reduced aerosol effects. This reduction leads to an acceleration of the forcing of climate change, i.e. an increase in forcing by 0.1 to 0.3 W m−2, up to 12 % of the total climate forcing in 2019 compared to 1750 according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

2022

Genotoxicity assessment of lung cells cultured at the air-liquid interface: comparison of bronchial and alveolar mono- and cocultures

Elje, Elisabeth; McFadden, Erin; Mariussen, Espen; Dusinska, Maria; Rundén-Pran, Elise

2022

Ozone measurements 2020

Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre

NILU

2022

Improving Estimates of Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Ozone Total Deposition through Multi-Model and Measurement-Model Fusion Approaches

Fu, Joshua S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Dentener, Frank; Aas, Wenche; Vestøl, Anna Camilla Andersson; Barrie, Leonard A.; Cole, AS; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Geddes, Jeffrey; Itahashi, Syuichi; Kanakidou, Maria; Labrador, Lorenzo; Paulot, Fabien; Schwede, Donna; Tan, Jiani; Vet, Robert

Earth system and environmental impact studies need high quality and up-to-date estimates of atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates the methodological benefits of multimodel ensemble and measurement-model fusion mapping approaches for atmospheric deposition focusing on 2010, a year for which several studies were conducted. Global model-only deposition assessment can be further improved by integrating new model-measurement techniques, including expanded capabilities of satellite observations of atmospheric composition. We identify research and implementation priorities for timely estimates of deposition globally as implemented by the World Meteorological Organization.

2022

Towards near-real-time estimates of greenhouse gas budgets

Ciais, Philippe; Davis, S; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Deng, Z.; Poulter, B.; Chevallier, F; Liu, Z.; Grassi, G.; Thompson, Rona Louise; McKinley, G. A.; Gruber, N.; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Gentine, P.; d'Aspremont, Alexandre; Lauvaux, Thomas

2022

Temporal Trends of Organochlorine and Perfluorinated Contaminants in a Terrestrial Raptor in Northern Europe Over 34 years (1986–2019)

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Herzke, Dorte; Bangjord, Georg; Bourgeon, Sophie; Fritsch, Clémentine; Eulaers, Igor

Fourteen legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants and 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in eggs of tawny owls (Strix alueco) in central Norway (1986–2019). We expected OCs to have reached stable equilibrium levels due to bans, and that recent phase-out of some PFASs would have slowed the increase of these compounds. ∑OC comprised on average approximately 92% of the measured compounds, whereas ∑PFAS accounted for approximately 8%. However, whereas the ∑OC to ∑PFAS ratio was approximately 60 in the first 5 years of the study, it was only approximately 11 in the last 5 years. Both OC pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed substantial declines over the study period (~85%–98%): hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordanes seemed to be levelling off, whereas p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlororbenzene (HCB), and most PCB congeners still seemed to decline at a more or less constant rate. While the concentration of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominating PFAS, was reduced by approximately 43%, other perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) showed only minor changes. Moreover, the median concentrations of seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) increased approximately five-fold over the study period. Perfluorononanoic acid and perfluoroundecanoate acid, however, seemed to be levelling off in recent years. In contrast, perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorodecanoate acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid seemed to increase more or less linearily. Finally, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was increasingly likely to be detected over the study period. Hence, most legacy OCs and PFOS have not reached a lower threshold with stable background levels, and voluntary elimination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates still has not resulted in declining levels in tawny owls in central Norway.

Pergamon Press

2022

Technical support for air quality management plans in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Task 4: Recommendations for expansion of particularly UP state-wide air quality monitoring network.

Hak, Claudia

NILU has, on contract with the World Bank (WB), analysed the existing air quality monitoring network in Uttar Pradesh. This note gives recommendations for the expansion of the state-wide air quality monitoring network, particularly in Uttar Pradesh. The recommendations are based on the locations and station types of existing stations, land-use considerations, distribution of industries and other possible sources, population distribution (population density) and existing Indian and international rules and plans.

NILU

2022

Genotoxicity Assessment Of Nanomaterials In Advanced Liver And Lung Models

Elje, Elisabeth; Mariussen, Espen; Dusinska, Maria; Rundén-Pran, Elise

2022

SIOS’s Earth observation and remote sensing activities toward building an efficient regional observing system in Svalbard

Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Jawak, Shridhar D.; Harcourt, William; Aparicio, Sara; Pohjola, Veijo; Andersen, Bo; Hübner, Christiane E.; Jennings, Inger; Matero, Ilkka; Godøy, Øystein ; Lihavainen, Heikki

2022

Disentangling Aerosol and Cloud effects on Dimming and Brightening in Observations and CMIP6

Julsrud, Ingeborg Rian; Storelvmo, Trude; Schulz, Michael; Moseid, Kine Onsum; Wild, Martin

Periods of dimming and brightening have been recorded in observational datasets of surface solar radiation (SSR) between the mid-20th century and present day. Atmospheric components affect SSR, including aerosols and clouds, though studies disagree somewhat about the relative effect of each component in different regions. Current Earth system models (ESMs) are unable to simulate observed trends in SSR. This study includes an investigation into observed SSR variations between 1961 and 2014 and an evaluation of the effects of cloud cover variations and impacts of aerosol extinction, using timeseries of SSR and cloud cover from in-situ measurements. Historical simulations by 42 ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) have also been studied and compared to observations. The observational study indicates that cloud cover has had a dampening effect on the variations of SSR and that emissions of aerosol and aerosol precursors are the main cause of the general trends in observed SSR in four regions—China, Japan, Europe and the United States—during 1961-2014. The study of simulated SSR in CMIP6 yields the conclusion that current ESMs remain unable to simulate the magnitude of observed dimming and brightening in China, Japan and the United States, but that the European SSR trends between 1961 and 2014 are fairly well reproduced in the ESMs. A rough quantification of the regional surface radiation extinction efficiency of aerosol and precursor emissions in the simulations is found to agree with observed values in Europe, but not in the other three regions.

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2022

Characterisation of cumulative risk of contaminants to organisms exposed to stormwater in Oslo, Norway

Ruus, Anders; Xie, Li; Wolf, Raoul; Petersen, Karina; Færgestad, E. M.; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik

2022

Monitoring atmospheric composition and deposition in Norway

Aas, Wenche; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Hak, Claudia; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle

The Norwegian monitoring programme is set up to meet national and international obligations and needs for measurement data with a long-term commitment. The data are important for compliance monitoring as well as input for effect studies. The monitoring of atmospheric composition and deposition are organised under national programmes mainly funded by the Norwegian Environment Agency in addition to some direct support from the Ministry of Climate and Environment. NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research is responsible for the daily operation and reporting of the results from this monitoring. The monitoring aim to fulfil several inter-connected purposes and is divided in four main programmes: transboundary fluxes, contaminants, climate change and the ozone layer. In addition, regularly moss surveys are conducted to assess atmospheric deposition of pollutants such as heavy metals.

NILU

2022

Utslippsberegninger med NERVE - Norwegian Emissions from Road Vehicle Exhaust-Modellen

Grythe, Henrik; Weydahl, Torleif; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana

2022

Modelling the influence of climate change on contaminant exposure in three key seabird species in the European Arctic

Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen; Eulaers, Igor; Blévin, Pierre; Sagerup, Kjetil; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Eckhardt, Sabine; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Sunde Krogseth, Ingjerd

2022

Recommendations for the revision of the ambient air quality directives (AAQDs) regarding modelling applications

Thunis, Philippe; Janssen, S.; Wesseling, J.; Piersanti, A.; Pirovano, G.; Tarrasón, Leonor; Martin, F; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Guevara, M.; Monteiro, A.; Clappier, A.; Pisoni, E.; Guerreiro, Cristina; Ortiz, Alberto González

Publications Office of the European Union

2022

Evaluation and Global-Scale Observation of Nitrous Oxide from IASI on Metop-A

Chalinel, Rémi; Attié, Jean-Luc; Ricaud, Philippe; Vidot, Jérôme; Kangah, Yannick; Hauglustaine, Didier; Thompson, Rona Louise

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas difficult to estimate by satellite because of its weak spectral signature in the infra-red band and its low variability in the troposphere. Nevertheless, this study presents the evaluation of new tropospheric N2O observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) on Metop-A using the Toulouse N2O Retrieval Version 2.0 tool. This tool is based on the Radiative Transfer for Tiros Operational Vertical sounder (RTTOV) model version 12.3 coupled to the Levenberg-Marquardt optimal estimation method enabling the simultaneous retrieval of methane, water vapour, temperature profiles together with surface temperature and emissivity within the 1240–1350 cm−1 window. In this study, we focused on the upper troposphere (300 hPa) where the sensitivity of IASI is significant. The IASI N2O data has been evaluated using aircraft N2O observations from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN) in 2011. In addition, we evaluated the IASI N2O using ground-based N2O measurements from 9 stations belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We found a total random error of ∼2 ppbv (0.6%) for one single retrieval at 300 hPa. Under favorable conditions, this error is also found in the vertical level pressure range 300–500 hPa. It decreases rapidly to ∼0.4 ppbv (0.1%) when we average on a 1° × 1° box. In addition, independent observations allows the estimation of bias with the IASI TN2OR v2.0 N2O. The bias between IASI and aircraft N2O data at 300 hPa is ∼1.0 ppbv (∼0.3%). We found an estimated random error of ∼2.3 ppbv (∼0.75%). This study also shows relatively high correlations between IASI data and aircraft in situ profiles but more varying correlations over the year 2011 depending on the location between IASI and NDACC remote sensing data. Finally, we present daily, monthly, and seasonal IASI N2O horizontal distributions in the upper troposphere as well as cross sections for different seasons that exhibit maxima in the Tropical band especially over Africa and South America.

MDPI

2022

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