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EUROqCHARM - Assuring Reproducible, Harmonised and Quality-Controlled Assessments of Plastic Pollution

van Bavel, Bert; Lusher, Amy; Aliani, Stefano; de Boer, Jacob; van der Veen, Ike; Galgani, Francois; Stoica, Elena; Fabres, Joan; Farre, Marinella; Nikiforov, Vladimir; De Witte, Bavo; Primpke, Sebastian; Strand, Jakob; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Kaegi, Ralf; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Del Cerro, Corrinne

2022

Integument carotenoid-based colouration reflects contamination to perfluoroalkyl substances, but not mercury, in arctic black-legged kittiwakes

Costantini, David; Blévin, Pierre; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Esteve, Valérie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Humann-Guilleminot, Ségolène; Moe, Børge; Parenteau, Charline; Récapet, Charlotte; Bustamante, Paco; Chastel, Olivier

Anthropogenic activities are introducing multiple chemical contaminants into ecosystems that act as stressors for wildlife. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and mercury (Hg) are two relevant contaminants that may cause detrimental effects on the fitness of many aquatic organisms. However, there is a lack of information on their impact on the expression of secondary sexual signals that animals use for mate choice. We have explored the correlations between integument carotenoid-based colourations, blood levels of carotenoids, and blood levels of seven PFAS and of total Hg (THg) in 50 adult male black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from the Norwegian Arctic during the pre-laying period, while controlling for other colouration influencing variables such as testosterone and body condition. Kittiwakes with elevated blood concentrations of PFAS (PFOSlin, PFNA, PFDcA, PFUnA, or PFDoA) had less chromatic but brighter bills, and brighter gape and tongue; PFOSlin was the pollutant with the strongest association with bill colourations. Conversely, plasma testosterone was the only significant correlate of hue and chroma of both gape and tongue, and of hue of the bill. Kittiwakes with higher concentrations of any PFAS, but not of THg, tended to have significantly higher plasma concentrations of the carotenoids astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and cryptoxanthin. Our work provides the first correlative evidence that PFAS exposure might interfere with the carotenoid metabolism and the expression of integument carotenoid-based colourations in a free-living bird species. This outcome may be a direct effect of PFAS exposure or be indirectly caused by components of diet that also correlate with elevated PFAS concentrations (e.g., proteins). It also suggests that there might be no additive effect of THg co-exposure with PFAS on the expression of colourations. These results call for further work on the possible interference of PFAS with the expression of colourations used in mate choice.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Plastics as a carrier of chemical additives to the Arctic: possibilities for strategic monitoring across the circumpolar North

Hamilton, Bonnie M.; Baak, Julia E.; Vorkamp, Katrin; Hammer, Sjúrður; Granberg, Maria; Herzke, Dorte; Provencher, Jennifer F.

Plastic pollution (including microplastics) has been reported in a variety of biotic and abiotic compartments across the circumpolar Arctic. Due to their environmental ubiquity, there is a need to understand not only the fate and transport of physical plastic particles, but also the fate and transport of additive chemicals associated with plastic pollution. Further, there is a fundamental research gap in understanding long-range transport of chemical additives to the Arctic via plastics as well as their behavior under environmentally relevant Arctic conditions. Here, we comment on the state of the science of plastic as carriers of chemical additives to the Arctic, and highlight research priorities going forward. We suggest further research on the transport pathways of chemical additives via plastics from both distant and local sources and laboratory experiments to investigate chemical behavior of plastic additives under Arctic conditions, including leaching, uptake, and bioaccumulation. Ultimately, chemical additives need to be included in strategic monitoring efforts to fully understand the contaminant burden of plastic pollution in Arctic ecosystems.

2022

Updated trends for atmospheric mercury in the Arctic: 1995–2018

MacSween, Katrina; Stupple, Geoff; Aas, Wenche; Kyllönen, Katriina; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Skov, Henrik; Steffen, Alexandra; Berg, Torunn; Mastromonaco, Michelle Nerentorp

The Arctic region forms a unique environment with specific physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting mercury (Hg) cycles and limited anthropogenic Hg sources. However, historic global emissions and long range atmospheric transport has led to elevated Hg in Arctic wildlife and waterways. Continuous atmospheric Hg measurements, spanning 20 years, and increased monitoring sites has allowed a more comprehensive understanding of how Arctic atmospheric mercury is changing over time. Time-series trend analysis of TGM (Total Gaseous Mercury) in air was performed from 10 circumpolar air monitoring stations, comprising of high-Arctic, and sub-Arctic sites. GOM (gaseous oxidised mercury) and PHg (particulate bound mercury) measurements were also available at 2 high-Arctic sites. Seasonal mean TGM for sub-Arctic sites were lowest during fall ranging from 1.1 ng m−3 Hyytiälä to 1.3 ng m−3, Little Fox Lake. Mean TGM concentrations at high-Arctic sites showed the greatest variability, with highest daily means in spring ranging between 4.2 ng m−3 at Amderma and 2.4 ng m−3 at Zeppelin, largely driven by local chemistry. Annual TGM trend analysis was negative for 8 of the 10 sites. High-Arctic seasonal TGM trends saw smallest decline during summer. Fall trends ranged from −0.8% to −2.6% yr−1. Across the sub-Arctic sites spring showed the largest significant decreases, ranging between −7.7% to −0.36% yr−1, while fall generally had no significant trends. High-Arctic speciation of GOM and PHg at Alert and Zeppelin showed that the timing and composition of atmospheric mercury deposition events are shifting. Alert GOM trends are increasing throughout the year, while PHg trends decreased or not significant. Zeppelin saw the opposite, moving towards increasing PHg and decreasing GOM. Atmospheric mercury trends over the last 20 years indicate that Hg concentrations are decreasing across the Arctic, though not uniformly. This is potentially driven by environmental change, such as plant productivity and sea ice dynamics.

Elsevier

2022

Status report of air quality in Europe for year 2021, using validated and up-to-date data

Targa, Jaume; Ripoll, Anna; Banyuls, Lorena; Ortiz, Alberto González; Soares, Joana

This report presents summarised information on the status of air quality in Europe in 2021, based on Up-To-Date (i.e. prior to final quality control) and validated air quality monitoring data reported by the member and cooperating countries of the EEA. It aims at giving more timely and preliminary information on the status of ambient air quality in Europe in 2021 for five key air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2 and SO2). The report also gives a preliminary assessment of the progress towards meeting the European air quality standards for the protection of health and the new World Health Organization air quality guidelines, and compares the air quality status in 2021 with the previous three years. The preliminary data reported for 2021 shows that more than 11% and 9% of the monitoring stations exceeded the EU standards for PM10 and O3, respectively. The WHO AQG for PM2.5, PM10, O3 and SO2 were exceeded by 94%, 66%, 92% and 4%, respectively. Exceedances of the NO2 limit value still occur in 8 reporting countries and WHO AQG still occur in 35 reporting countries.

ETC/HE

2022

One planet: one health. A call to support the initiative on a global science–policy body on chemicals and waste

Brack, Werner; Barcelo Culleres, Damia; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Budzinski, Hélène; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I.; Fantke, Peter; Kandie, Faith; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Hernández, Félix J.; Hilscherová, Klara; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Jahnke, Annika; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Khan, Stuart J.; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Kümmerer, Klaus; Lalonde, Brice; Lamoree, Marja H.; Levi, Yves; Lara Martín, Pablo Antonio; Montagner, Cassiana C.; Mougin, Christian; Msagati, Titus; Oehlmann, Jörg; Posthuma, Leo; Reid, Malcolm James; Reinhard, Martin; Richardson, Susan D.; Rostkowski, Pawel; Schymanski, Emma; Schneider, Flurina; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Snyder, Shane Allen; Fabriz Sodré, Fernando; Teodorovic, Ivana; Thomas, Kevin V; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.; Viet, Pham Hung; Yew-Hoong, Karina Gin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zuccato, Ettore

The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has recently been suggested. We strongly support this initiative based on the awareness that humanity has already likely left the safe operating space within planetary boundaries for novel entities including chemical pollution. Immediate action is essential and needs to be informed by sound scientific knowledge and data compiled and critically evaluated by an overarching science–policy interface body. Major challenges for such a body are (i) to foster global knowledge production on exposure, impacts and governance going beyond data-rich regions (e.g., Europe and North America), (ii) to cover the entirety of hazardous chemicals, mixtures and wastes, (iii) to follow a one-health perspective considering the risks posed by chemicals and waste on ecosystem and human health, and (iv) to strive for solution-oriented assessments based on systems thinking. Based on multiple evidence on urgent action on a global scale, we call scientists and practitioners to mobilize their scientific networks and to intensify science–policy interaction with national governments to support the negotiations on the establishment of an intergovernmental body based on scientific knowledge explaining the anticipated benefit for human and environmental health.

Springer

2022

Population pharmacokinetic modeling of CSF to blood clearance: prospective tracer study of 161 patients under work-up for CSF disorders

Hovd, Markus Herberg; Mariussen, Espen; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Lashkarivand, Aslan; Christensen, Hege; Ringstad, Geir; Eide, Per Kristian

Background
Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance has previously not been established for neurological diseases. Possibly, variability in cerebrospinal fluid clearance may affect the underlying disease process and may possibly be a source of under- or over-dosage of intrathecally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance of the intrathecally administered magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadobutrol (Gadovist, Bayer Pharma AG, GE). For this, we established a population pharmacokinetic model, hypothesizing that cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance differs between cerebrospinal fluid diseases.

Methods
Gadobutrol served as a surrogate tracer for extra-vascular pathways taken by several brain metabolites and drugs in cerebrospinal fluid. We estimated cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance in patients with different cerebrospinal fluid disorders, i.e. symptomatic pineal and arachnoid cysts, as well as tentative spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or different types of hydrocephalus (idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, communicating- and non-communicating hydrocephalus). Individuals with no verified cerebrospinal fluid disturbance at clinical work-up were denoted references.

Results
Population pharmacokinetic modelling based on 1,140 blood samples from 161 individuals revealed marked inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic profiles, including differences in absorption half-life (time to 50% of tracer absorbed from cerebrospinal fluid to blood), time to maximum concentration in blood and the maximum concentration in blood as well as the area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to infinity. In addition, the different disease categories of cerebrospinal fluid diseases demonstrated different profiles.

Conclusions
The present observations of considerable variation in cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance between individuals in general and across neurological diseases, may suggest that defining cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance can become a useful diagnostic adjunct for work-up of cerebrospinal fluid disorders. We also suggest that it may become useful for assessing clearance capacity of endogenous brain metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid, as well as measuring individual cerebrospinal fluid to blood clearance of intrathecal drugs.

2022

Versailles project on advanced materials and standards (VAMAS) interlaboratory study on measuring the number concentration of colloidal gold nanoparticles

Minelli, Caterina; Wywijas, Magdalena; Bartczak, Dorota; Cuello-Nuñez, Susana; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Deumer, Jerome; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Murphy, Karen E.; Johnson, Monique E.; Bustos, Antonio R. Montoro; Strenge, Ingo H.; Faure, Bertrand; Høghøj, Peter; Tong, Vivian; Burr, Loïc; Norling, Karin; Höök, Fredrik; Roesslein, Matthias; Kocic, Jovana; Hendriks, Lyndsey; Kestens, Vikram; Ramaye, Yannic; Lopez, Maria C. Contreras; Auclair, Guy; Mehn, Dora; Gilliland, Douglas; Potthoff, Annegret; Oelschlägel, Kathrin; Tentschert, Jutta; Jungnickel, Harald; Krause, Benjamin C.; Hachenberger, Yves U.; Reichardt, Philipp; Luch, Andreas; Whittaker, Thomas E.; Stevens, Molly M.; Gupta, Shalini; Singh, Akash; Lin, Fang-Hsin; Liu, Yi-Hung; Costa, Anna Luisa; Baldisserri, Carlo; Jawad, Rid; Andaloussi, Samir E. L.; Holme, Margaret N.; Lee, Tae Geol; Kwak, Minjeong; Kim, Jaeseok; Ziebel, Johanna; Guignard, Cedric; Cambier, Sebastien; Contal, Servane; Gutleb, Arno; Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Jankiewicz, Bartlomiej J.; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Wu, Xiaochun; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Elje, Elisabeth; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Dusinska, Maria; Kaur, Inder Preet; Price, David; Nesbitt, Ian; O'Reilly, Sarah; Peters, Ruud J. B.; Bucher, Guillaume; Coleman, Dennis; Harrison, Angela J.; Ghanem, Antoine; Gering, Anne; McCarron, Eileen; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Cornelis, Geert; Tuoriniemi, Jani; Sakai, Midori; Tsuchida, Hidehisa; Maguire, Ciarán; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Lawlor, Alan J.; Adams, Jessica; Schultz, Carolin L.; Constantin, Doru; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Tung, Le Duc; Panariello, Luca; Damilos, Spyridon; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Lynch, Iseult; Fryer, Benjamin; Quevedo, Ana Carrazco; Guggenheim, Emily; Briffa, Sophie; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Huang, Yuxiong; Keller, A.; Kinnunen, Virva-Tuuli; Perämäki, Siiri; Krpetic, Zeljka

We describe the outcome of a large international interlaboratory study of the measurement of particle number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles, project 10 of the technical working area 34, “Nanoparticle Populations” of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). A total of 50 laboratories delivered results for the number concentration of 30 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles measured using particle tracking analysis (PTA), single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) light spectroscopy, centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The study provides quantitative data to evaluate the repeatability of these methods and their reproducibility in the measurement of number concentration of model nanoparticle systems following a common measurement protocol. We find that the population-averaging methods of SAXS, CLS and UV-Vis have high measurement repeatability and reproducibility, with between-labs variability of 2.6%, 11% and 1.4% respectively. However, results may be significantly biased for reasons including inaccurate material properties whose values are used to compute the number concentration. Particle-counting method results are less reproducibile than population-averaging methods, with measured between-labs variability of 68% and 46% for PTA and spICP-MS respectively. This study provides the stakeholder community with important comparative data to underpin measurement reproducibility and method validation for number concentration of nanoparticles.

Royal Society of Chemistry

2022

Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants in Norway. Annual Report 2021.

Aas, Wenche; Berglen, Tore Flatlandsmo; Eckhardt, Sabine; Fiebig, Markus; Solberg, Sverre; Yttri, Karl Espen

This report presents results from the monitoring of atmospheric composition and deposition of air pollution in 2021, and focuses on main components in air and precipitation, particulate and gaseous phase of inorganic constituents, particulate carbonaceous matter, ground level ozone and particulate matter. The level of pollution in 2021 was generally low with few high episodes.

NILU

2022

Pharmacokinetics of PEGylated Gold Nanoparticles: In Vitro—In Vivo Correlation

Dubaj, Tibor; Kozics, Katarina; Srámková, Monika; Manova, Alena; Bastus, Neus G.; Moriones, Oscar H.; Kohl, Yvonne; Dusinska, Maria; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Puntes, Victor; Nelson, Andrew; Gábelová, Alena; Simon, Peter

Data suitable for assembling a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nanoparticles (NPs) remain relatively scarce. Therefore, there is a trend in extrapolating the results of in vitro and in silico studies to in vivo nanoparticle hazard and risk assessment. To evaluate the reliability of such approach, a pharmacokinetic study was performed using the same polyethylene glycol-coated gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) in vitro and in vivo. As in vitro models, human cell lines TH1, A549, Hep G2, and 16HBE were employed. The in vivo PEG-AuNP biodistribution was assessed in rats. The internalization and exclusion of PEG-AuNPs in vitro were modeled as first-order rate processes with the partition coefficient describing the equilibrium distribution. The pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by fitting the model to the in vitro data and subsequently used for PBPK simulation in vivo. Notable differences were observed in the internalized amount of Au in individual cell lines compared to the corresponding tissues in vivo, with the highest found for renal TH1 cells and kidneys. The main reason for these discrepancies is the absence of natural barriers in the in vitro conditions. Therefore, caution should be exercised when extrapolating in vitro data to predict the in vivo NP burden and response to exposure.

MDPI

2022

What caused a record high PM10 episode in northern Europe in October 2020?

Zwaaftink, Christine Groot; Aas, Wenche; Eckhardt, Sabine; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamer, Paul David; Johnsrud, Mona; Kylling, Arve; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Stebel, Kerstin; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Yttri, Karl Espen

In early October 2020, northern Europe experienced an episode with poor air quality due to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM). At several sites in Norway, recorded weekly values exceeded historical maximum PM10 concentrations from the past 4 to 10 years. Daily mean PM10 values at Norwegian sites were up to 97 µg m−3 and had a median value of 59 µg m−3. We analysed this severe pollution episode caused by long-range atmospheric transport based on surface and remote sensing observations and transport model simulations to understand its causes. Samples from three sites in mainland Norway and the Arctic remote station Zeppelin (Svalbard) showed strong contributions from mineral dust to PM10 (23 %–36 % as a minimum and 31 %–45 % as a maximum) and biomass burning (8 %–16 % to 19 %–21 %). Atmospheric transport simulations indicate that Central Asia was the main source region for mineral dust observed in this episode. The biomass burning fraction can be attributed to forest fires in Ukraine and southern Russia, but we cannot exclude other sources contributing, like fires elsewhere, because the model underestimates observed concentrations. The combined use of remote sensing, surface measurements, and transport modelling proved effective in describing the episode and distinguishing its causes.

2022

Sentinel-5P based NOx emissions from large combustion plants for comparison with and possibly QA/QC of E-PRTR emissions

Stebel, Kerstin; Schneider, Philipp; Hamer, Paul David; Tarrasón, Leonor; Weydahl, Torleif; Antognazza, Frederico

2022

Tiltaksutredning for lokal luftkvalitet i Levanger kommune

Weydahl, Torleif; Teigland, Even Kristian; Hak, Claudia; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Sousa Santos, Gabriela; Grythe, Henrik; Hamer, Paul David; Vo, Dam Thanh; Vallejo, Islen; Høiskar, Britt Ann Kåstad

2022

Vil ha internasjonalt forbod mot 7000 miljøgifter

Hanssen, Linda (intervjuobjekt); Ollestad, Tone (journalist)

2022

Aerosol-boundary layer feedbacks triggered by both greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions

Stjern, Camilla Weum; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Pisso, Ignacio

2022

Developing human biomonitoring as a 21st century toolbox within the European exposure science strategy 2020–2030

Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Hopf, Nancy B.; Louro, Henriqueta; Viegas, Susana; Galea, Karen S.; Pasanen-Kase, Robert; Santonen, Tiina; Mustieles, Vicente; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Verhagen, Hans; Bopp, Stephanie K.; Antignac, Jean Philippe; David, Arthur; Mol, Hans; Barouki, Robert; Audouze, Karine; Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Fantke, Peter; Scheepers, Paul; Ghosh, Manosij; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Lobo Vicente, Joana; Trier, Xenia; Rambaud, Loïc; Fillol, Clémence; Denys, Sebastien; Conrad, André; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Paini, Alicia; Arnot, Jon; Schulze, Florian; Jones, Kate; Sepai, Ovnair; Ali, Imran; Brennan, Lorraine; Benfenati, Emilio; Cubadda, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Bartonova, Alena; Connolly, Alison; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; van Klaveren, Jacob; Palmen, Nicole; Dirven, Hubert; Husøy, Trine; Thomsen, Cathrine; Virgolino, Ana; Röösli, Martin; Gant, Tim; von Goetz, Natalie; Bessems, Jos

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is a crucial approach for exposure assessment, as emphasised in the European Commission’s Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability (CSS). HBM can help to improve chemical policies in five major key areas: (1) assessing internal and aggregate exposure in different target populations; 2) assessing exposure to chemicals across life stages; (3) assessing combined exposure to multiple chemicals (mixtures); (4) bridging regulatory silos on aggregate exposure; and (5) enhancing the effectiveness of risk management measures.

In this strategy paper we propose a vision and a strategy for the use of HBM in chemical regulations and public health policy in Europe and beyond. We outline six strategic objectives and a roadmap to further strengthen HBM approaches and increase their implementation in the regulatory risk assessment of chemicals to enhance our understanding of exposure and health impacts, enabling timely and targeted policy interventions and risk management. These strategic objectives are: 1) further development of sampling strategies and sample preparation; 2) further development of chemical-analytical HBM methods; 3) improving harmonisation throughout the HBM research life cycle; 4) further development of quality control / quality assurance throughout the HBM research life cycle; 5) obtain sustained funding and reinforcement by legislation; and 6) extend target-specific communication with scientists, policymakers, citizens and other stakeholders.

HBM approaches are essential in risk assessment to address scientific, regulatory and societal challenges. HBM requires full and strong support from the scientific and regulatory domain to reach its full potential in public and occupational health assessment and in regulatory decision-making.

Elsevier

2022

Abrupt Change in the Lower Thermospheric Mean Meridional Circulation During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings and Its Impact on Trace Species

Orsolini, Yvan J.; Zhang, Jiarong; Limpasuvan, Varavut

Based on the hourly output from the 2000–2014 simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's vertically extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model in specified dynamics configuration, we examine the roles of planetary waves (PWs), gravity waves, and atmospheric tides in driving the mean meridional circulation (MMC) in the lower thermosphere (LT) and its response to the sudden stratospheric warming phenomenon with an elevated stratopause in the northern hemisphere. Sandwiched between the two summer-to-winter overturning circulations in the mesosphere and the upper thermosphere, the climatological LT MMC is a narrow gyre that is characterized by upwelling in the middle winter latitudes, equatorward flow near 120 km, and downwelling in the middle and high summer latitudes. Following the onset of the sudden stratospheric warmings, this gyre reverses its climatological direction, resulting in a “chimney-like” feature of un-interrupted polar descent from the altitude of 150 km down to the upper mesosphere. This reversal is driven by the westward-propagating PWs, which exert a brief but significant westward forcing between 70 and 125 km, exceeding gravity wave and tidal forcings in that altitude range. The attendant polar descent potentially leads to a short-lived enhanced transport of nitric oxide into the mesosphere (with excess in the order of 1 parts per million), while carbon dioxide is decreased.

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2022

An NO2 sensor based on WO3 thin films for automotive applications in the microwave frequency range

Paleczek, Anna; Grochala, D.; Staszek, K.; Gruszczynski, S.; Maciak, Erwin; Opilski, Zbigniew; Kaluzynski, Piotr; Wojcikowski, Marek; Cao, Tuan-Vu; Rydosz, A.

2022

Content and migration of chemical additives from plastic products

Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla

NILU has, on behalf of the Norwegian Environment Agency, performed chemical analyses of a selection of additives in plastic products. The goal was to identify content and migration of the chemical additives in and from the products to air and surfaces of the products at room temperature. The plastic products covered extension cord, sockets, flooring, wall papers, upholstery, PC-mouse and PCs. Targeted chemicals were organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including TBBPA, and chlorinated substances. TPHP (triphenyl phosphate) was detected in most sample types, but the highest concentrations were found for TBEP (tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate. The highest number of compounds were detected in the PC-mouses and high levels were also found in the surface wipes on PC-mouses. None of the targeted compounds were detected in the air samples.

NILU

2022

Mercury in air and soil on an urban-rural transect in East Africa

Nipen, Maja; Jørgensen, Susanne Jøntvedt; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borgå, Katrine; Breivik, Knut; Mmochi, Aviti J; Mwakalapa, Eliezer; Quant, M. Isabel; Schlabach, Martin; Vogt, Rolf David; Wania, Frank

There are large knowledge gaps concerning concentrations, sources, emissions, and spatial trends of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere in developing regions of the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in urban areas. Filling these gaps is a prerequisite for assessing the effectiveness of international regulation and for enabling a better understanding of the global transport of Hg in the environment. Here we use a passive sampling technique to study the spatial distribution of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0), GEM) and assess emission sources in and around Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's largest city. Included in the study were the city's main municipal waste dumpsite and an e-waste processing facility as potential sources of GEM. To complement the GEM data and for a better overview of the Hg contamination status of Dar es Salaam, soil samples were collected from the same locations where passive air samplers were deployed and analysed for total Hg. Overall, GEM concentrations ranged between <0.86 and 5.34 ng m−3, indicating significant local sources within the urban area. The municipal waste dumpsite and e-waste site had GEM concentrations elevated above the background, at 2.41 and 1.77 ng m−3, respectively. Hg concentrations in soil in the region (range 0.0067 to 0.098 mg kg−1) were low compared to those of other urban areas and were not correlated with atmospheric GEM concentrations. This study demonstrates that GEM is a significant environmental issue in the urban region of Dar es Salaam. Further studies from urban areas in the Global South are needed to better identify sources of GEM.

Royal Society of Chemistry

2022

Potential environmental impact of bromoform from Asparagopsis farming in Australia

Jia, Yue; Quack, Birgit; Kinley, Robert D.; Pisso, Ignacio; Tegtmeier, Susann

To mitigate the rumen enteric methane (CH4) produced by ruminant livestock, Asparagopsis taxiformis is proposed as an additive to ruminant feed. During the cultivation of Asparagopsis taxiformis in the sea or in terrestrially based systems, this macroalgae, like most seaweeds and phytoplankton, produces a large amount of bromoform (CHBr3), which contributes to ozone depletion once released into the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on the impact of CHBr3 on the stratospheric ozone layer resulting from potential emissions from proposed Asparagopsis cultivation in Australia. The impact is assessed by weighting the emissions of CHBr3 with its ozone depletion potential (ODP), which is traditionally defined for long-lived halocarbons but has also been applied to very short-lived substances (VSLSs). An annual yield of ∼3.5 × 104 Mg dry weight is required to meet the needs of 50 % of the beef feedlot and dairy cattle in Australia. Our study shows that the intensity and impact of CHBr3 emissions vary, depending on location and cultivation scenarios. Of the proposed locations, tropical farms near the Darwin region are associated with the largest CHBr3 ODP values. However, farming of Asparagopsis using either ocean or terrestrial cultivation systems at any of the proposed locations does not have the potential to significantly impact the ozone layer. Even if all Asparagopsis farming were performed in Darwin, the CHBr3 emitted into the atmosphere would amount to less than 0.02 % of the global ODP-weighted emissions. The impact of remaining farming scenarios is also relatively small even if the intended annual yield in Darwin is scaled by a factor of 30 to meet the global requirements, which will increase the global ODP-weighted emissions up to ∼0.5 %.

2022

Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation. Annual report 2021.

Svendby, Tove Marit; Hansen, Georg H.; Bernet, Leonie; Bäcklund, Are; Nilsen, Anne-Cathrine; Schulze, Dorothea; Johnsen, Bjørn

This report summarizes the results from the Norwegian monitoring programme on stratospheric ozone and UV radiation measurements. The ozone layer has been measured at three locations since 1979: In Oslo/Kjeller, Tromsø/Andøya and Ny-Ålesund. The UV-measurements started in 1995. The results show that there was a significant decrease in stratospheric ozone above Norway between 1979 and 1997. After that, the ozone layer stabilized at a level ~2% below pre-1980 level. The year 2021 was characterized by low total ozone values in June and July, whereas “normal” ozone values were measured during winter and spring.

NILU

2022

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