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Comparing national greenhouse gas budgets reported in UNFCCC inventories against atmospheric inversions

Deng, Zhu; Ciais, Philippe; Tzompa-Sosa, Zitely A.; Saunois, Marielle; Qiu, Chunjing; Tan, Chang; Sun, Taochun; Ke, Piyu; Cui, Yanan; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Lin, Xin; Thompson, Rona Louise; Tian, Hanqin; Yao, Yuanzhi; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lauerwald, Ronny; Jain, Atul K.; Xu, Xiaoming; Bastos, Ana; Palmer, Paul I.; Lauvaux, Thomas; d'Aspremont, Alexandre; Giron, Clément; Benoit, Antoine; Poulter, Benjamin; Chang, Jinfeng; Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Davis, Steven J; Liu, Zhu; Grassi, Giacomo; Albergel, Clement; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Perugini, Lucia; Peters, Wouter; Chevallier, Frederic

In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, this study presents a comprehensive framework to process the results of an ensemble of atmospheric inversions in order to make their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) carbon dioxide (CO2) flux suitable for evaluating national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) submitted by countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). From inversions we also deduced anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions regrouped into fossil and agriculture and waste emissions, as well as anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To compare inversion results with national reports, we compiled a new global harmonized database of emissions and removals from periodical UNFCCC inventories by Annex I countries, and from sporadic and less detailed emissions reports by non-Annex I countries, given by national communications and biennial update reports. No gap filling was applied. The method to reconcile inversions with inventories is applied to selected large countries covering ∼90 % of the global land carbon uptake for CO2 and top emitters of CH4 and N2O. Our method uses results from an ensemble of global inversions produced by the Global Carbon Project for the three greenhouse gases, with ancillary data. We examine the role of CO2 fluxes caused by lateral transfer processes from rivers and from trade in crop and wood products and the role of carbon uptake in unmanaged lands, both not accounted for by NGHGIs. Here we show that, despite a large spread across the inversions, the median of available inversion models points to a larger terrestrial carbon sink than inventories over temperate countries or groups of countries of the Northern Hemisphere like Russia, Canada and the European Union. For CH4, we find good consistency between the inversions assimilating only data from the global in situ network and those using satellite CH4 retrievals and a tendency for inversions to diagnose higher CH4 emission estimates than reported by NGHGIs. In particular, oil- and gas-extracting countries in central Asia and the Persian Gulf region tend to systematically report lower emissions compared to those estimated by inversions. For N2O, inversions tend to produce higher anthropogenic emissions than inventories for tropical countries, even when attempting to consider only managed land emissions. In the inventories of many non-Annex I countries, this can be tentatively attributed to a lack of reporting indirect N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition and from leaching to rivers, to the existence of natural sources intertwined with managed lands, or to an underestimation of N2O emission factors for direct agricultural soil emissions. Inversions provide insights into seasonal and interannual greenhouse gas fluxes anomalies, e.g., during extreme events such as drought or abnormal fire episodes, whereas inventory methods are established to estimate trends and multi-annual changes. As a much denser sampling of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations by different satellites coordinated into a global constellation is expected in the coming years, the methodology proposed here to compare inversion results with inventory reports (e.g., NGHGIs) could be applied regularly for monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation policy and progress by countries to meet the objective of their pledges. The dataset constructed by this study is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5089799 (Deng et al., 2021).

2022

Hazard Assessment of Benchmark Metal-Based Nanomaterials Through a Set of In Vitro Genotoxicity Assays

Vital, Nádia; Pinhão, Mariana; El Yamani, Naouale; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Louro, Henriqueta; Dusinska, Maria; Silva, Maria João

2022

Målinger av miljøgifter i luft ved Franzefoss Eide på Sotra og Husøya ved Kristiansund

Berglen, Tore Flatlandsmo; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Mortensen, Tore; Andresen, Erik; Bæk, Kine; Davanger, Kirsten; Enge, Ellen Katrin; Gundersen, Hans; Hanssen, Linda; Harju, Mikael; Nipen, Maja; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Röhler, Laura; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Skaar, Jøran Solnes

NILU har gjennomført måleprogram for konsentrasjoner i luft ved Franzefoss Gjenvinning AS sine anlegg ved Eide på Sotra og ved Husøya ved Kristiansund. Ved Eide ble det tatt prøver i luft og analysert for prioriterte miljøgifter som dekloraner, fenoler, ftalater, PFAS, benzotriazoler, organiske tinnforbindelser, samt VOC inkludert D6, ammoniakk (NH3), gassfase HCl og hydrogensulfid (H2S). For de prioriterte miljøgiftene var de fleste prøvene under deteksjonsgrensen. De høyeste verdiene ble observert ved Lokasjon 11 Vannrenseanlegget. Ved Husøya ble det tatt prøver i luft og analysert for VOC inkludert D6, ammoniakk (NH3) og gassfase HCl. Verdiene ved Husøya var lavere enn ved Eide.

NILU

2022

The 11 year solar cycle UV irradiance effect and its dependency on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

Orsolini, Yvan J.; Guttu, Sigmund; Stordal, Frode; Otterå, Odd Helge; Omrani, Nour-Eddine

2022

Evaluation of multidecadal high-resolution atmospheric chemistry-transport modelling for exposure assessments in the continental Nordic countries

Frohn, Lise Marie; Geels, Camilla; Andersen, Christopher; Andersson, Camilla; Bennet, Cecilia; Christensen, Jesper H.; Im, Ulas; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Palamarchuk, Yuliia; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Segersson, David; Sofiev, Mikhail; Brandt, Jørgen

Elsevier

2022

Erratum: Correction to: Hazard Assessment of Benchmark Metal-Based Nanomaterials Through a Set of In Vitro Genotoxicity Assays (Advances in experimental medicine and biology)

Vital, Nádia; Pinhão, Mariana; El Yamani, Naouale; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Louro, Henriqueta; Dusinska, Maria; Silva, Maria João

Springer

2022

National Mercury Assessment – An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Norwegian Mercury Regulations and Policies

Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Routti, Heli Anna Irmeli; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Bank, Michael; Travnikov, Oleg; Enge, Caroline; Gundersen, Cathrine Brecke; Eckhardt, Sabine; Tørseth, Kjetil; Vejrup, Kristine; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

The National Mercury (Hg) Assessment in Norway evaluates the connections among: (a) national, regional and global Hg policies and regulations, (b) emissions, releases, uses and exposure pathways of Hg, and (c) concentrations of Hg in the environment, biota, and humans, measured during 2000-2020. Our findings suggest that the key changes of Hg in humans and the environment are highly dependent on the quality of the datasets, yet connections both to national and regional sources, as well as climate related drivers could be made for some data sets.

Norwegian Environment Agency

2022

Presentasjon av NILU for Romerike batteriverk

Guerreiro, Cristina; Bogra, Shelly

2022

Modeling products for ACTRIS users

Evangeliou, Nikolaos

2022

Mapping global flying aircraft activities using Landsat 8 and cloud computing

Zhao, Fen; Xia, Lang; Kylling, Arve; Shang, Hua; Yang, Peng

Elsevier

2022

Mass Cultivation of Microalgae: I. Experiences with Vertical Column Airlift Photobioreactors, Diatoms and CO2 Sequestration

Eilertsen, Hans Christian; Eriksen, Gunilla; Bergum, John-Steinar; Strømholt, Jo; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Giæver, Ingeborg Hulda; Israelsen, Linn; Svenning, Jon Brage; Dalheim, Lars; Osvik, Renate Døving; Hansen, Espen Holst; Ingebrigtsen, Richard Andre; Aspen, Terje M; Wintervoll, Geir-Henning

From 2015 to 2021, we optimized mass cultivation of diatoms in our own developed vertical column airlift photobioreactors using natural and artificial light (LEDs). The project took place at the ferrosilicon producer Finnfjord AS in North Norway as a joint venture with UiT—The Arctic University of Norway. Small (0.1–6–14 m3) reactors were used for initial experiments and to produce inoculum cultures while upscaling experiments took place in a 300 m3 reactor. We here argue that species cultivated in reactors should be large since biovolume specific self-shadowing of light can be lower for large vs. small cells. The highest production, 1.28 cm3 L−1 biovolume (0.09–0.31 g DW day−1), was obtained with continuous culture at ca. 19% light utilization efficiency and 34% CO2 uptake. We cultivated 4–6 months without microbial contamination or biofouling, and this we argue was due to a natural antifouling (anti-biofilm) agent in the algae. In terms of protein quality all essential amino acids were present, and the composition and digestibility of the fatty acids were as required for feed ingredients. Lipid content was ca. 20% of ash-free DW with high EPA levels, and omega-3 and amino acid content increased when factory fume was added. The content of heavy metals in algae cultivated with fume was well within the accepted safety limits. Organic pollutants (e.g., dioxins and PCBs) were below the limits required by the European Union food safety regulations, and bioprospecting revealed several promising findings.

MDPI

2022

Odds and ends of atmospheric mercury in Europe and over the North Atlantic Ocean: temporal trends of 25 years of measurements

Custódio, Danilo; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Spain, T. Gerard; Pankratov, Fidel F.; Strigunova, Iana; Molepo, Koketso; Skov, Henrik; Bieser, Johannes; Ebinghaus, Ralf

The global monitoring plan of the Minamata Convention on Mercury was established to generate long-term data necessary for evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory measures at a global scale. After 25 years of monitoring (since 1995), Mace Head is one of the atmospheric monitoring stations with the longest mercury record and has produced sufficient data for the analysis of temporal trends of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in Europe and the North Atlantic. Using concentration-weighted trajectories for atmospheric mercury measured at Mace Head as well as another five locations in Europe, Amderma, Andøya, Villum, Waldhof and Zeppelin, we identify the regional probabilistic source contribution factor and its changes for the period of 1996 to 2019. Temporal trends indicate that concentrations of mercury in the atmosphere in Europe and the North Atlantic have declined significantly over the past 25 years at a non-monotonic rate averaging 0.03  . Concentrations of TGM at remote marine sites were shown to be affected by continental long-range transport, and evaluation of reanalysis back trajectories displays a significant decrease in TGM in continental air masses from Europe in the last 2 decades. In addition, using the relationship between mercury and other atmospheric trace gases that could serve as a source signature, we perform factorization regression analysis, based on positive rotatable factorization to solve probabilistic mass functions. We reconstructed atmospheric mercury concentration and assessed the contribution of the major natural and anthropogenic sources. The results reveal that the observed downward trend in the atmospheric mercury is mainly associated with a factor with a high load of long-lived anthropogenic species.

2022

Understand and mitigate impacts of 3D clouds on UV-VIS NO2 trace gas retrievals by AI exploration of synthetic and real data

Kylling, Arve; Emde, Claudia; Yu, Huan; van Roozendael, Michel; Stebel, Kerstin; Mayer, Bernhard

2022

Thymidine Kinase+/− Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity Assays for Assessment of Nanomaterials

Chen, Tao; Dusinska, Maria; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

The methods outlined here are part of a series of papers designed specifically for genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials (NM). Common Considerations such as NM characterization, sample preparation and dose selection, relevant to all genotoxicity assays, are found in an accompanying paper. The present paper describes methods for evaluation of mutagenicity in the mammalian (mouse) thymidine kinase (Tk) gene occurring in L5178Y mouse lymphoma (ML) cells and in the designated TK gene in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Mutations change the functional genotype from TK+/− to TK−/−, detectable as cells surviving on media selective for the lack of thymidine kinase (TK) function. Unlike cells with TK enzyme function, the TK−/− cells are unable to integrate the toxic selection agent, allowing these cells to survive as rare mutant colonies. The ML assay has been shown to detect a broad spectrum of genetic damage, including both small scale (point) mutations and chromosomal alterations. This assay is a widely used mammalian cell gene mutation assay for regulatory purposes and is included in the core battery of genotoxicity tests for regulatory decision-making. The TK6 assay is an assay using a human cell line derived similarly via mutagenic manipulations and optimal selection. Details are provided on the materials required, cell culture methods, selection of test chemical concentrations, cytotoxicity, treatment time, mutation expression, cloning, and data calculation and interpretation. The methods describe the microwell plate version of the assays without metabolic activation.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Long-term PM Chemical Composition and Organic Aerosol (OA) Sources in European Arctic, Svalbard

Chen, Gang; Manousakas, Manousos I.; Lunder, Chris Rene; Aas, Wenche; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Yttri, Karl Espen; Slowik, Jay; Prévôt, André S. H.

2022

LP-39 TWINALT project – an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge on alternative methods for toxicity assessment

Roszak, J.; Sobańska, Z.; Wolniakowska, A.; Marinovich, M.; Dusinska, Maria; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Vanhaecke, T.; Reszka, E.

Elsevier

2022

State of the Climate in 2021: 5. The Arctic

Thoman, Richard L.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Moon, Twila A.; Andreassen, LM.; Baker, E.; Ballinger, Thomas J.; Berner, L.T.; Bernhard, Germar H.; Bhatt, U.S.; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Box, Jason E.; Brettschneider, B.; Burgess, D.; Butler, Amy H.; Cappelen, John; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Decharme, Bertrand; Derksen, C.; Divine, Dmitry V; Drozdov, D. S.; Elias, Chereque A.; Epstein, Howard E.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fettweis, Xavier; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Frost, Gerald V.; Gerland, Sebastian; Goetz, Scott J.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Haas, Christian; Hanna, Edward; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Hendricks, Stefan; Ialongo, Iolanda; Isaksen, Ketil; Jensen, C.D.; Johnsen, Bjørn; Kaleschke, L.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kohler, Jack; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Labe, Zachary; Lakkala, Kaisa; Lara, Mark J.; Lee, Simon H.; Loomis, Bryant; Luks, B.; Luojus, K; Macander, Matthew J.; Magnússon, R. Í.; Malkova, GV; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Manney, Gloria L.; Meier, Walter N.; Mote, Thomas; Mudryk, Lawrence; Müller, Rolf; Nyland, K. E.; Overland, James E.; Pálsson, Finnur; Park, T.; Parker, C.L.; Perovich, Don; Petty, Alek; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Pinzon, J. E.; Ricker, Robert; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Serbin, S. P.; Sheffield, G.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I; Smith, Sharon L.; Stafford, K.M.; Steer, Adam; Streletskiy, Dmitry A.; Svendby, Tove Marit; Tedesco, Marco; Thomson, L.; Thorsteinsson, T; Tian-Kunze, X.; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Tømmervik, Hans; Tschudi, Mark; Tucker, C.J.; Walker, Donald A.; Walsh, John E.; Wang, Muyin; Webster, Melinda; Wehrlé, Adrien; Winton, Øyvind; Wolken, G; Wood, K.; Wouters, B.; Yang, D.

American Meteorological Society

2022

Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes in 2021. Annual report.

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Svendby, Tove Marit; Hermansen, Ove; Lunder, Chris Rene; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Fiebig, Markus; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Hansen, Georg H.; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Stebel, Kerstin

This annual report for 2021 summarizes the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin Observatory, situated on Svalbard, during the period 2001-2021, and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2009-2021.

NILU

2022

Utslipp til luft fra Boliden Odda AS. Reviderte spredningsberegninger og konsekvensvurderinger av økte utslipp.

Weydahl, Torleif; Svendby, Tove Marit

NILU - Norsk Institutt for luftforskning har på oppdrag for Boliden Odda AS, utført sprednings- og avsetningsberegninger i forbindelse med utslipp fra sinkproduksjonsanlegget. Studien beregner luftkonsentrasjon og avsetning av svovel (forsuring) og konsentrasjon av metaller/svevestøv ved dagens sinkproduksjon og ved en planlagt utvidelse. Timesmiddel-, døgnmiddel- og årsmiddel-konsentrasjon av SO2 og PM10 er beregnet til å være innenfor grenseverdier og luftkvalitetskriterier ved dagens og utvidet produksjon. Beregningene viser mulig overskridelse av målsetningsverdien for kadmium ved en utvidelse av produksjonen. Utvidelse i produksjon gir et ytterligere bidrag til overskridelsen av tålegrensen (forsuring) i området rundt Odda. Økningen i avsetning forøvrig er beregnet å være i områder hvor tålegrensen er mer robust. Rapporten er en revisjon av NILU-rapport 3/2019.

NILU

2022

Impact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 1: Synthetic dataset for validation of trace gas retrieval algorithms

Emde, Claudia; Yu, Huan; Kylling, Arve; Van Roozendael, Michel; Stebel, Kerstin; Veihelmann, Ben

Retrievals of trace gas concentrations from satellite observations are mostly performed for clear regions or regions with low cloud coverage. However, even fully clear pixels can be affected by clouds in the vicinity, either by shadowing or by scattering of radiation from clouds in the clear region. Quantifying the error of retrieved trace gas concentrations due to cloud scattering is a difficult task. One possibility is to generate synthetic data by three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer simulations using realistic 3D atmospheric input data, including 3D cloud structures. Retrieval algorithms may be applied on the synthetic data, and comparison to the known input trace gas concentrations yields the retrieval error due to cloud scattering.

In this paper we present a comprehensive synthetic dataset which has been generated using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer model MYSTIC (Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres). The dataset includes simulated spectra in two spectral ranges (400–500 nm and the O2A-band from 755–775 nm). Moreover it includes layer air mass factors (layer-AMFs) calculated at 460 nm. All simulations are performed for a fixed background atmosphere for various sun positions, viewing directions and surface albedos.

Two cloud setups are considered: the first includes simple box clouds with various geometrical and optical thicknesses. This can be used to systematically investigate the sensitivity of the retrieval error on solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud parameters. Corresponding 1D simulations are also provided. The second includes realistic three-dimensional clouds from an ICON large eddy simulation (LES) for a region covering Germany and parts of surrounding countries. The scene includes cloud types typical of central Europe such as shallow cumulus, convective cloud cells, cirrus and stratocumulus. This large dataset can be used to quantify the trace gas concentration retrieval error statistically.

Along with the dataset, the impact of horizontal photon transport on reflectance spectra and layer-AMFs is analysed for the box-cloud scenarios. Moreover, the impact of 3D cloud scattering on the NO2 vertical column density (VCD) retrieval is presented for a specific LES case. We find that the retrieval error is largest in cloud shadow regions, where the NO2 VCD is underestimated by more than 20 %.

The dataset is available for the scientific community to assess the behaviour of trace gas retrieval algorithms and cloud correction schemes in cloud conditions with 3D structure.

2022

Bioaccumulation of Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Antarctic Breeding South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Their Prey

Alfaro Garcia, Laura Andrea; Descamps, Sebastien; Herzke, Dorte; Chastel, Olivier; Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Helene; Munoz, Gabriel; Bustamante, Paco; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine

Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in Antarctic wildlife, with high levels in the avian top predator south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). As increasing PFAS concentrations were found in the south polar skua during the breeding season in Antarctica, we hypothesised that available prey during the breeding period contributes significantly to the PFAS contamination in skuas. To test this, we compared PFAS in south polar skuas and their main prey from two breeding sites on opposite sides of the Antarctic continent: Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) stomach content, eggs, chicks, and adults from Svarthamaren in Dronning Maud Land and Adélie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Dumont d’Urville in Adélie Land. Of the 22 PFAS analysed, seven were present in the majority of samples, except petrel stomach content [only perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA) present] and Adélie penguins (only four compounds present), with increasing concentrations from the prey to the skuas. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) were higher at Dumont d’Urville than Svarthamaren. When adjusted to reflect one trophic level difference, the BMFs at Svarthamaren remained the same, whereas the ones at Dumont d’Urville doubled. At both the colonies, the skua PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by PFUnA, but differed with the presence of branched PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoate (PFTeA) and lack of perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at Dumont d’Urville. At Svarthamaren, the pattern in the prey was comparable to the skuas, but with a higher relative contribution of PFTeA in prey. At Dumont d’Urville, the pattern in the prey differed from the skuas, with the domination of PFUnA and the general lack of PFOS in prey. Even though the PFAS levels are low in Antarctic year-round resident prey, the three lines of evidence (pattern, BMF difference, and BMF adjusted to one trophic level) suggest that the Antarctic petrel are the significant source of PFAS in the Svarthamaren skuas, whereas the skuas in Dumont d’Urville have other important sources to PFAS than Adélie penguin, either in the continent or external on the inter-breeding foraging grounds far from Antarctica.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

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