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Robust evidence for reversal of the trend in aerosol effective climate forcing

Quaas, Johannes; Jia, Hailing; Smith, Chris; Albright, Anna Lea; Aas, Wenche; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Forster, Piers M.; Grosvenor, Daniel; Jenkins, Stuart; Klimont, Zbigniew; Loeb, Norman G.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Naik, Vaishali; Paulot, Fabien; Stier, Philip; Wild, Martin; Myhre, Gunnar; Schulz, Michael

Anthropogenic aerosols exert a cooling influence that offsets part of the greenhouse gas warming. Due to their short tropospheric lifetime of only several days, the aerosol forcing responds quickly to emissions. Here, we present and discuss the evolution of the aerosol forcing since 2000. There are multiple lines of evidence that allow us to robustly conclude that the anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) – both aerosol–radiation interactions (ERFari) and aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci) – has become less negative globally, i.e. the trend in aerosol effective radiative forcing changed sign from negative to positive. Bottom-up inventories show that anthropogenic primary aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions declined in most regions of the world; observations related to aerosol burden show declining trends, in particular of the fine-mode particles that make up most of the anthropogenic aerosols; satellite retrievals of cloud droplet numbers show trends in regions with aerosol declines that are consistent with these in sign, as do observations of top-of-atmosphere radiation. Climate model results, including a revised set that is constrained by observations of the ocean heat content evolution show a consistent sign and magnitude for a positive forcing relative to the year 2000 due to reduced aerosol effects. This reduction leads to an acceleration of the forcing of climate change, i.e. an increase in forcing by 0.1 to 0.3 W m−2, up to 12 % of the total climate forcing in 2019 compared to 1750 according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

2022

New Environmental Monitoring Program; Microplastics in Norwegian Coastal Areas, Rivers, Lakes and Air (Mikronor)

Bråte, Inger Lise Nerland; Hurley, Rachel; Hultman, Maria Thérése; Rødland, Elisabeth Strandbråten; Buenaventura, Nina Tuscano; Singdahl-Larsen, Cecilie; van Bavel, Bert; Herzke, Dorte; Lusher, Amy

2022

EUROqCHARM - Assuring Reproducible, Harmonised and Quality-Controlled Assessments of Plastic Pollution

van Bavel, Bert; Lusher, Amy; Aliani, Stefano; de Boer, Jacob; van der Veen, Ike; Galgani, Francois; Stoica, Elena; Fabres, Joan; Farre, Marinella; Nikiforov, Vladimir; De Witte, Bavo; Primpke, Sebastian; Strand, Jakob; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Kaegi, Ralf; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Del Cerro, Corrinne

2022

Reproducible Analytical Pipelines (RAPs) in Environmental Plastics Analysis: First Outputs From the EU EUORqCHARM Project

Aliani, Stefano; Lusher, Amy; Primpke, Sebastian; De Witte, Bavo; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Strand, Jakob; van Bavel, Bert

2022

Ingestion of Crumb Rubber and Body Burden of Associated Contaminants in Marine Invertebrates and Fish

Hägg, Fanny; Herzke, Dorte; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Egeness, Mari Jystad; Booth, Andy; Sørensen, Lisbet; Halsband-Lenk, Claudia

2022

Updating the OECD 211 Daphnia magna Reproduction Test for Use With Engineered and Anthropogenic Particles

Lynch, Iseult; Reilly, Katie; Guo, Zhiling; Ellis, Laura-Jayne; Serchi, Tommaso; Dusinska, Maria

2022

An overview of the project ‘ReGAME - Reliable Global Methane Emissions estimates in a changing world’

Platt, Stephen Matthew; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stebel, Kerstin; Thompson, Rona Louise; Zwaaftink, Christine Groot; Pisso, Ignacio; Schneider, Philipp; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Stohl, Andreas; Serov, Pavel; Ferré, Benedicte

Here we provide an overview of the newly commenced project ‘ReGAME - Reliable Global Methane Emissions estimates in a changing world’, funded by Research Council of Norway from 2021-2025, where we combine new developments in atmospheric methane observations: isotopic ratios (deuterium and 13C in methane), and the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) ground-based station network with atmospheric models (the chemistry transport model OsloCTM, and inversion model FLEXINVERT) to understand how and why atmospheric methane levels are increasing. The project has a particular focus on understanding the state of Arctic methane reservoirs such as ocean seeps and high latitude wetlands. This includes plans for a new observing system aboard the ice breaking vessel RV Kronprins Haakon and ocean observations, e.g., dynamics of Seep fluxes assessed during 1 year of continuous measurements at a seep site the NorEMSO project, updated information on spatial seep distribution via echo sounding, as well as high resolution high-latitude inversion modeling of atmospheric methane with FLEXINVERT. Furthermore, we investigate the utility of including of satellite data (TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5P mission) together with ground-based data, in inversion modeling. The inclusion of satellite data into inversion models is quite novel and offers rewards by increasing spatial coverage compared to ground based networks alone, potentially reducing uncertainties in the model outputs, and challenges due to satellite data uncertainties, spatial/ temporal coverage, and handling large data fields

2022

Evaluation of multidecadal high-resolution atmospheric chemistry-transport modelling for exposure assessments in the continental Nordic countries

Frohn, Lise Marie; Geels, Camilla; Andersen, Christopher; Andersson, Camilla; Bennet, Cecilia; Christensen, Jesper H.; Im, Ulas; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Palamarchuk, Yuliia; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Segersson, David; Sofiev, Mikhail; Brandt, Jørgen

Elsevier

2022

Emerging Contaminants in Household Chicken Eggs and Soil Around Waste Disposal Sites in Tanzania

Haarr, Ane; Mwakalapa, Eliezer; Nipen, Maja; Mmochi, Aviti; Borgå, Katrine

2022

Alternative Metrics for Long-Range Atmospheric Transport Potential (LRATP)

Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael; Wania, Frank

2022

Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Firn Core From Austfonna, Svalbard

Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Eckhardt, Sabine; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

2022

Spatial Variability of POPs in Air at European Background Sites

Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Breivik, Knut; Eckhardt, Sabine; Moeckel, Claudia; Gusev, Alexey; Shatalov, Victor; Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen

2022

European Registry of Materials: global, unique identifiers for (undisclosed) nanomaterials

van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Afantitis, Antreas; Culha, Mustafa; Dusinska, Maria; Exner, Thomas E.; Jeliazkova, Nina; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Lynch, Iseult; Melagraki, Georgia; Nymark, Penny; Papadiamantis, Anastasios; Winkler, David A.; Yilmaz, Hulya; Willighagen, Egon

Management of nanomaterials and nanosafety data needs to operate under the FAIR (findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability) principles and this requires a unique, global identifier for each nanomaterial. Existing identifiers may not always be applicable or sufficient to definitively identify the specific nanomaterial used in a particular study, resulting in the use of textual descriptions in research project communications and reporting. To ensure that internal project documentation can later be linked to publicly released data and knowledge for the specific nanomaterials, or even to specific batches and variants of nanomaterials utilised in that project, a new identifier is proposed: the European Registry of Materials Identifier. We here describe the background to this new identifier, including FAIR interoperability as defined by FAIRSharing, identifiers.org, Bioregistry, and the CHEMINF ontology, and show how it complements other identifiers such as CAS numbers and the ongoing efforts to extend the InChI identifier to cover nanomaterials. We provide examples of its use in various H2020-funded nanosafety projects.

2022

Modeling the Dynamic Behavior of Radiocesium in Grazing Reindeer

Skuterud, Lavrans; Hevrøy, Tanya Helena; Thørring, Håvard; Ytre-Eide, Martin

Radiocesium contamination in Norwegian reindeer and the factors influencing contamination levels have been studied for more than 50 years, providing significant amounts of data. Monitoring contamination in reindeer is of utmost importance for reindeer husbandry and herders in Norway and will need to be studied for many years because of the persistent contamination levels due to the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. This paper presents a novel dynamic model that takes advantage of the large data sets that have been collected for reindeer monitoring to estimate 137Cs in reindeer meat at any given time. The model has been validated using detailed 137Cs data from one of the herds most affected by the fallout. The model basis includes detailed 137Cs soil data from aerial surveys, GPS-based knowledge of reindeer migration, and local soil-to-vegetation 137Cs transfer information. The validation exercise shows that the model satisfactorily predicts both short- and long-term changes in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer meat and suggests that the model will be a useful tool in estimating seasonal changes and evaluating possible remedial actions in case of a future fallout event.

2022

Microplastics in the atmosphere and cryosphere in the circumpolar North: a case for multicompartment monitoring

Hamilton, Bonnie M.; Jantunen, Liisa; Bergmann, Melanie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Aherne, Julian; Magnusson, Kerstin; Herzke, Dorte; Granberg, Maria; Hallanger, Ingeborg G.; Gomiero, Alessio; Peeken, Ilka

The atmosphere and cryosphere have recently garnered considerable attention due to their role in transporting microplastics to and within the Arctic, and between freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. While investigating either in isolation provides valuable insight on the fate of microplastics in the Arctic, monitoring both provides a more holistic view. Nonetheless, despite the recent scientific interest, fundamental knowledge on microplastic abundance and consistent monitoring efforts are lacking for these compartments. Here, we build upon the work of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme's Monitoring Guidelines for Litter and Microplastic to provide a roadmap for multicompartment monitoring of the atmosphere and cryosphere to support our understanding of the sources, pathways, and sinks of plastic pollution across the Arctic. Overall, we recommend the use of existing standard techniques for ice and atmospheric sampling and to build upon existing monitoring efforts in the Arctic to obtain a more comprehensive pan-Arctic view of microplastic pollution in these two compartments.

2022

Total ozone loss during the 2021/22 Arctic winter and comparison to previous years

Pazmino, Andrea; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Lefevre, Franck; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain; Lecouffe, Audrey; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Feng, Wuhu; van Roozendael, Michel; Jepsen, Nis; Hansen, Georg H.; Kivi, Rigel; Alwarda, Ramina; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley A.

2022

Aerosol-boundary layer feedbacks triggered by both greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions

Stjern, Camilla Weum; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Pisso, Ignacio

2022

Influence of aerosol-radiation interactions on air pollution in East Asia

Hodnebrog, Øivind; Stjern, Camilla Weum; Marelle, Louis; Myhre, Gunnar; Pisso, Ignacio; Wang, Shuxiao

2022

Tomographic 3D reconstructions of artificial releases of SO2 in the atmospheric boundary layer

Pisso, Ignacio; Cassiani, Massimo; Stebel, Kerstin; Kylling, Arve; Dinger, Anna Solvejg; Ardeshiri, Hamidreza; Park, Soon-Young; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Stohl, Andreas

2022

SIOS’s Earth observation and remote sensing activities toward building an efficient regional observing system in Svalbard

Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Jawak, Shridhar D.; Harcourt, William; Aparicio, Sara; Pohjola, Veijo; Andersen, Bo; Hübner, Christiane E.; Jennings, Inger; Matero, Ilkka; Godøy, Øystein ; Lihavainen, Heikki

2022

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