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Fant 2089 publikasjoner. Viser side 1 av 209:

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Environmental Contaminants in an Urban Fjord, 2021

Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Jartun, Morten; Bæk, Kine; Rundberget, Thomas; Vogelsang, Christian; Beylich, Bjørnar; Lund, Espen; Allan, Ian; Schlabach, Martin; Hanssen, Linda; Enge, Ellen Katrin

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

2022

Microplastics in Norwegian coastal areas, rivers, lakes and air (MIKRONOR1)

Bavel, Bert van; Lusher, Amy Lorraine; Consolaro, Chiara; Hjelset, Sverre; Singdahl-Larsen, Cecilie; Buenaventura, Nina Tuscano; Röhler, Laura; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Lund, Espen; Eidsvoll, David; Herzke, Dorte; Nerland Bråte, Inger-Lise

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

2022

Chemical risk indicator scoping study Scoping study to develop an indicator on the risk of chemicals on ecosystems

Andres, Sandrine; Kotschik, Pia; Malherbe, Laure; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Nipen, Maja; Balde, Mamadou-Bailo; Arts, Gertie; Carré, Aurélien; Vuaille, Jeanne; Trier, Xenia

This scoping study proposes a methodology to develop indicator(s) on the risk of chemicals on various types of ecosystems, habitats and species. This indicator is designed to answer the very different needs coming from environmental policy and strategies. Its aim is to reflect the consequences of human activities (e.g., farming) on ecosystems taking into account different protection goals that can cover specific or protected habitats (or the relevant communities or species in these habitats) or intensively used areas such as agricultural landscapes, which are very relevant in terms of representativity.

In order to develop such an indicator, the methodological approach retained to calculate maps showing a specific risk, illustrated as different degrees of exceedance of tolerable effect thresholds, is to combine different layers of information on which areas/habitats/ecosystems, contain which species, that are exposed to which amounts of chemicals. Information on the sensitivity of the species towards different toxicological effects, and how sensitive the species are to the applied chemicals, is used as ‘connectors’ between the different layers of spatial information.

The report highlights the data required for the development of such an indicator and their availability through a review of existing databases. A case study illustrates the applicability of the indicator and the need for further development.

ETC/HE

2022

Health Risk Assessment of Air Pollution and the Impact of the New WHO Guidelines

Soares, Joana; Ortiz, Alberto González; Gsella, Artur; Horálek, Jan; Plass, Dietrich; Kienzler, Sarah

Air pollution is a major cause of premature death and disease and is the single largest environmental health risk in Europe. Heart disease and stroke are the most common reasons for premature deaths attributable to air pollution, followed by lung diseases and lung cancer.

The health risk assessment methodology assumptions have been recently adapted to follow the recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO), released in 2021. The new global air quality guidelines by WHO provide up-to-date health-based guideline levels for major health-damaging air pollutants and new recommendations for assessing the risk of exposure to air pollution.
This report estimates the health risk related to air pollution in 2020 based on the latest methodology. The estimates consider the number of premature deaths and years of life lost related to exposure to fine particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, both for the 27 Member States of the European Union and for additional 14 European countries (Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, San Marino, Serbia, Switzerland, and Türkiye).

A sensitivity analysis to the changes in concentration-response functions and counterfactual concentrations is performed to understand the impact of such changes on the mortality outcome estimates. The sensitivity analysis included both old and new health risk methodology assumptions but also the recommendation from the ELAPSE study on the concentration response functions. The ELAPSE project includes some of the most recent studies on the health effects at low air pollution levels by examining associations between exposures to relatively low levels of air pollution across Europe, including levels below the current EU standards.

The results for 2020 show that the largest health risks are estimated for the countries with the largest populations. However, in relative terms, when considering e.g., years of life lost per 100 000 inhabitants, the largest relative risks are observed in central and eastern European countries for PM2.5, in central and southern European countries for NO2, and south and eastern European for O3. The lowest impact is found for the northern and north-western parts of Europe, where the concentrations are lowest. The number of premature deaths attributed to air pollution in 2020 compared to 2019, increased for PM2.5 and decreased for NO2 and O3. Apart from the changes in concentrations and demographics, the COVID-19 pandemics seems to also have an influence on these changes. For PM2.5, the reduction in concentrations were counteracted by the excess of deaths due to the pandemics. In the case of NO2, the reduction in concentrations was more pronounced as a result of the lockdown measures and the drastic reduction in traffic and its impact in reducing mortality was bigger than the increasing impact of excess of deaths due to COVID-19.

Changing assumptions on concentration-response functions and counterfactual concentrations have implications for estimating mortality health outcomes. The sensitivity analysis shows that it is not straightforward to assess which assumptions estimates the highest health impacts when both factors change. In this case, the final outcome will depend on the concentration at the grid-cell level. The latest assumptions are expected to reduce the health outcomes for PM2.5 and increase for NO2 and O3, when compared to the previous one. When aggregated to all countries, the health outcomes are reduced by over 40 % for PM2.5 and increased by 50 % and 30 % for NO2 and O3, respectively, in 2020. However, this change varies across countries depending on the concentration level the population in the individual countries is exposed to.

ETC/HE

2022

Estimating the morbidity related environmental burden of disease due to exposure to PM2.5, NO2 and O3 in outdoor ambient air

Kienzler, Sarah; Soares, Joana; Ortiz, Alberto González; Plass, Dietrich

Epidemiological studies have increasingly shown that ambient air pollution is not only associated with mortality but also with the occurrence of a number of long and short-term diseases. Further, the Global Burden of Disease study clearly indicated, that e. g. particulate matter pollution is also associated with a considerable burden of disease related to morbidity effects.

In addition to the most recent EEA’s health risk assessments, this report estimates the morbidity related health burden associated with exposure to the same three key air pollutants: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Years lived with disability (YLDs) or attributable hospitalisation cases are assessed for the year 2019 for numerous European countries, depending on the respective data availability. Besides, the methodological approach as well as reviews on evidence-based health outcomes, health data and concentration-response functions are provided.

For the ten considered risk-outcome pairs, the results showed the highest morbidity related burden of disease in Europe for PM2.5 associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with 51.6 YLDs per 100 000 inhabitants ≥25 years. For NO2 the highest morbidity burden resulted from diabetes mellitus (DM) with 54.6 YLDs per 100 000 inhabitants ≥35 years. For short-term O3 exposure hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases were estimated at 18 attributable cases per 100 000 inhabitants ≥65 years.

In addition to the estimates, the report contains suggestions for further sensitivity analyses. These would allow a better assessment of the effects resulting from different input data on the results.

The estimations presented in this report are the first of its kind that are carried out for a wide range of morbidity health outcomes associated with different outdoor air pollutants in Europe, using a consistent methodology and data from European health databases.

ETC/HE

2022

Screening Programme 2021

Schlabach, Martin; van Bavel, Bert; Bæk, Kine; Dadkhah, Mona Eftekhar; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Reid, Malcolm James; Rostkowski, Pawel; Rundberget, Thomas; Ndungu, Kuria; Rødland, Elisabeth Strandbråten; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Harju, Mikael; Beylich, Bjørnar; Vogelsang, Christian

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

2022

Air quality assessment in the surroundings of aluminium smelters. Effect of emissions on air quality in the past (1992 – now).

Hak, Claudia

On behalf of Aluminiumindustriens Miljøsekretariat (AMS), NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research reviewed existing data on ambient air quality around aluminium smelters from the period 1992 – 2020. Changes in production technologies and treatment technologies have been implemented in this time period. Emissions to air and ambient concentrations of most compounds typically measured (PAHs, fluorides, sulphur dioxide, particulate matter, heavy metals) have decreased since the beginning of the 1990s as a result of improvement of the production technology.

NILU

2022

VOC measurements 2020

Solberg, Sverre; Claude, Anja; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Walker, Sam-Erik

NILU

2022

Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes in 2021. Annual report.

Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Svendby, Tove Marit; Hermansen, Ove; Lunder, Chris Rene; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Fiebig, Markus; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Hansen, Georg H.; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Stebel, Kerstin

This annual report for 2021 summarizes the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin Observatory, situated on Svalbard, during the period 2001-2021, and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2009-2021.

NILU

2022

Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants in Norway. Annual Report 2021.

Aas, Wenche; Berglen, Tore Flatlandsmo; Eckhardt, Sabine; Fiebig, Markus; Solberg, Sverre; Yttri, Karl Espen

This report presents results from the monitoring of atmospheric composition and deposition of air pollution in 2021, and focuses on main components in air and precipitation, particulate and gaseous phase of inorganic constituents, particulate carbonaceous matter, ground level ozone and particulate matter. The level of pollution in 2021 was generally low with few high episodes.

NILU

2022

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