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Troll observing network – for useful new data about Antarctica

Pedersen, Christina Alsvik; Njåstad, Birgit; Descamps, Sebastien; Hattermann, Tore; Hudson, Stephen; Flått, Stig; Aas, Wenche; Darelius, Elin Maria K.; Miloch, Wojciech Jacek; Schweitzer, Johannes; Storvold, Rune

2023

Seasonal and latitudinal variability in the atmospheric concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in the Northern Hemisphere

Wania, Frank; Warner, Nicholas Alexander; McLachlan, Michael S; Durham, Jeremy; Lei, Ying Duan; Xu, Shihe

Field data from two latitudinal transects in Europe and Canada were gathered to better characterize the atmospheric fate of three cyclic methylsiloxanes (cVMSs), i.e., octamethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). During a year-long, seasonally resolved outdoor air sampling campaign, passive samplers with an ultra-clean sorbent were deployed at 15 sampling sites covering latitudes ranging from the source regions (43.7–50.7 °N) to the Arctic (79–82.5 °N). For each site, one of two passive samplers and one of two field blanks were separately extracted and analyzed for the cVMSs at two different laboratories using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas the use of a particular batch of sorbent and the applied cleaning procedure to a large extent controlled the levels of cVMS in field blanks, and therefore also the method detection and quantification limits, minor site-specific differences in field blank contamination were apparent. Excellent agreement between duplicates was obtained, with 95% of the concentrations reported by the two laboratories falling within a factor of 1.6 of each other. Nearly all data show a monotonic relationship between the concentration and distance from the major source regions. Concentrations in source regions were comparatively constant throughout the year, while the concentration gradient towards remote regions became steeper during summer when removal via OH radicals is at its maximum. Concentrations of the different cVMS oligomers were highly correlated within a given transect. Changes in relative abundance of cVMS oligomers along the transect were in agreement with relative atmospheric degradation rates via OH radicals.

Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

2023

Painted Wood Climate Risk Analysis by the HERIe Model of Building Protection and Conservation Heating Scenarios in Norwegian Medieval Stone Churches

Grøntoft, Terje; Stoveland, Lena Porsmo

HERIe was used to model the effect of changes to indoor climate on the risk of humidity-induced mechanical damage (cracking and plastic deformation) to wooden panels painted with stiff gesso in two Norwegian medieval stone churches: Kinn (mean relative humidity (RH, %) = 79%) on the humid west coast, and Ringsaker (mean RH = 49%) in the drier eastern part of the country. The risk involved in moving cultural heritage objects (paint on wood) between the churches and a conservation studio with more “ideal”, stable conditions was also modeled. A hypothetical reduction in RH to ~65% and, proportionally, of the climate fluctuations in Kinn, and an increase in the RH in Ringsaker to a more stable value of ~63% via conservation heating, were found to improve (Kinn) and uphold (Ringsaker) the conformity to relevant standards and significantly reduce the risk of damage, except in the scenario of moving objects from Ringsaker to a conservation studio, when the risk would increase. The use of conservation heating could save ~50% of the heating cost. The estimated risk reductions may be less relevant for objects kept in situ, where cracks in the original paint and gesso have developed historically. They may be more relevant when moving original objects away from their proofed climate into a conservation studio for treatment.

MDPI

2023

Deployment and Evaluation of a Network of Open Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Systems

Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Haugen, Rolf; Hassani, Amirhossein; Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck Rene; Bartonova, Alena

Low-cost air quality sensors have the potential to complement the regulatory network of air quality monitoring stations, with respect to increased spatial density of observations, however, their data quality continues to be of concern. Here we report on our experience with a small network of open low-cost sensor systems for air quality, which was deployed in the region of Stavanger, Norway, under Nordic winter conditions. The network consisted of AirSensEUR sensor systems, equipped with sensors for, among others, nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter. The systems were co-located at an air quality monitoring station, for a period of approximately six weeks. A subset of the systems was subsequently deployed at various roadside locations for half a year, and finally co-located at the same air quality monitoring station again, for a post-deployment evaluation. For fine particulate matter, the co-location results indicate a good inter-unit consistency, but poor average out-of-the-box performance (R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 9.6 μ
g m−3). While Köhler correction did not significantly improve the accuracy in our study, filtering for high relative humidity conditions improved the results (R2 = 0.63, RMSE = 7.09 μg m−3). For nitrogen dioxide, the inter-unit consistency was found to be excellent, and calibration models were developed which showed good performance during the testing period (on average R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 5.73 μg m−3), however, due to the short training period, the calibration models are likely not able to capture the full annual variability in environmental conditions. A post-deployment co-location showed, respectively, a slight and significant decrease in inter-sensor consistency for fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. We further demonstrate, how observations from even such a small network can be exploited by assimilation in a high-resolution air quality model, thus adding value to both the observations and the model, and ultimately providing a more comprehensive perspective of air quality than is possible from either of the two input datasets alone. Our study provides valuable insights on the operation and performance of an open sensor system for air quality, particularly under challenging Nordic environmental conditions.

MDPI

2023

Spatial variability and temporal changes of POPs in European background air

Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Eckhardt, Sabine; Gusev, Alexey; Möckel, Claudia; Shatalov, Victor; Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen; Breivik, Knut

Concentration data on POPs in air is necessary to assess the effectiveness of international regulations aiming to reduce the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. POPs in European background air are continuously monitored using active- and passive air sampling techniques at a limited number of atmospheric monitoring stations. As a result of the low spatial resolution of such continuous monitoring, there is limited understanding of the main sources controlling the atmospheric burdens of POPs across Europe. The key objectives of this study were to measure the spatial and temporal variability of concentrations of POPs in background air with a high spatial resolution (n = 101) across 33 countries within Europe, and to use observations and models in concert to assess if the measured concentrations are mainly governed by secondary emissions or continuing primary emissions. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was not only the POP detected in highest concentrations (median: 67 pg/m3), but also the only POP that had significantly increased over the last decade. HCB was also the only POP that was positively correlated to latitude. For the other targeted POPs, the highest concentrations were observed in the southern part of Europe, and a declining temporal trend was observed. Spatial differences in temporal changes were observed. For example, γ-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) had the largest decrease in the south of Europe, while α-HCH had declined the most in central-east Europe. High occurrence of degradation products of the organochlorine pesticides and isomeric ratios indicated past usage. Model predictions of PCB-153 (2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl) by the Global EMEP Multi-media Modelling System suggest that secondary emissions are more important than primary emissions in controlling atmospheric burdens, and that the relative importance of primary emissions are more influential in southern Europe compared to northern Europe. Our study highlights the major advantages of combining high spatial resolution observations with mechanistic modelling approaches to provide insights on the relative importance of primary- and secondary emission sources in Europe. Such knowledge is considered vital for policy makers aiming to assess the potential for further emission reduction strategies of legacy POPs.

Elsevier

2023

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Modulate Systemic Immune Response and Increase Levels of Reduced Glutathione in Mice after Seven-Week Inhalation

Mikusova, Miroslava Lehotska; Busova, Milena; Tulinska, Jana; Masanova, Vlasta; Liskova, Aurelia; Uhnakova, Iveta; Dusinska, Maria; Krivosikova, Zora; Rollerova, Eva; Alacova, Radka; Wsolova, Ladislava; Horvathova, Mira; Szabova, Michaela; Lukan, Norbert; Vecera, Zbynek; Coufalik, Pavel; Krumal, Kamil; Alexa, Lukas; Thon, Vojtech; Piler, Pavel; Buchtova, Marcela; Vrlikova, Lucie; Moravec, Pavel; Mikuska, Pavel

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in a wide range of applications. Although inhalation of NPs is one of the most important toxicologically relevant routes, experimental studies on potential harmful effects of TiO2 NPs using a whole-body inhalation chamber model are rare. In this study, the profile of lymphocyte markers, functional immunoassays, and antioxidant defense markers were analyzed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of seven-week inhalation exposure to two different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (0.00167 and 0.1308 mg TiO2/m3) in mice. A dose-dependent effect of TiO2 NPs on innate immunity was evident in the form of stimulated phagocytic activity of monocytes in low-dose mice and suppressed secretory function of monocytes (IL-18) in high-dose animals. The effect of TiO2 NPs on adaptive immunity, manifested in the spleen by a decrease in the percentage of T-cells, a reduction in T-helper cells, and a dose-dependent decrease in lymphocyte cytokine production, may indicate immunosuppression in exposed mice. The dose-dependent increase in GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio in whole blood demonstrated stimulated antioxidant defense against oxidative stress induced by TiO2 NP exposure.

MDPI

2023

Implications of Regurgitative Feeding on Plastic Loads in Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis): A Study from Svalbard

Tulatz, Felix; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bourgeon, Sophie; Herzke, Dorte; Krapp, Rupert; Langset, Magdalene; Neumann, Svenja; Lippold, Anna; Collard, France

Procellariiform seabirds like northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) are prone to ingest and accumulate floating plastic pieces. In the North Sea region, there is a long tradition to use beached fulmars as biomonitors for marine plastic pollution. Monitoring data revealed consistently lower plastic burdens in adult fulmars compared to younger age classes. Those findings were hypothesized to partly result from parental transfer of plastic to chicks. However, no prior study has examined this mechanism in fulmars by comparing plastic burdens in fledglings and older fulmars shortly after the chick-rearing period. Therefore, we investigated plastic ingestion in 39 fulmars from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), including 21 fledglings and 18 older fulmars (adults/older immatures). We found that fledglings (50–60 days old) had significantly more plastic than older fulmars. While plastic was found in all fledglings, two older fulmars contained no and several older individuals barely any plastic. These findings supported that fulmar chicks from Svalbard get fed high quantities of plastic by their parents. Adverse effects of plastic on fulmars were indicated by one fragment that perforated the stomach and possibly one thread perforating the intestine. Negative correlations between plastic mass and body fat in fledglings and older fulmars were not significant.

2023

A flexible algorithm for network design based on information theory

Thompson, Rona Louise; Pisso, Ignacio

A novel method for atmospheric network design is presented, which is based on information theory. The method does not require calculation of the posterior uncertainty (or uncertainty reduction) and is therefore computationally more efficient than methods that require this. The algorithm is demonstrated in two examples: the first looks at designing a network for monitoring CH4 sources using observations of the stable carbon isotope ratio in CH4 (δ13C), and the second looks at designing a network for monitoring fossil fuel emissions of CO2 using observations of the radiocarbon isotope ratio in CO2 (Δ14CO2).

2023

SCCS scientific opinion on Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) - SCCS/1636/21

Granum, Berit; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bodin, Laurent; Chaudhry, Qasim; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Ezendam, Janine; Gaffet, Eric; Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Panteri, Eirini; Rogiers, Vera; Rousselle, Christophe; Stepnik, Maciej; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Wijnhoven, Susan; Koutsodimou, Aglaia; Uter, Wolfgang; von Goetz, Natalie

Elsevier

2023

Global agricultural ammonia emissions simulated with the ORCHIDEE land surface mode

Beaudor, Maureen; Vuichard, Nicolas; Lathière, Juliette; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Hauglustaine, Didier

Ammonia (NH3) is an important atmospheric constituent. It plays a role in air quality and climate through the formation of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles. It has also an impact on ecosystems through deposition processes. About 85 % of NH3 global anthropogenic emissions are related to food and feed production and, in particular, to the use of mineral fertilizers and manure management. Most global chemistry transport models (CTMs) rely on bottom-up emission inventories, which are subject to significant uncertainties. In this study, we estimate emissions from livestock by developing a new module to calculate ammonia emissions from the whole agricultural sector (from housing and storage to grazing and fertilizer application) within the ORCHIDEE (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems) global land surface model. We detail the approach used for quantifying livestock feed management, manure application, and indoor and soil emissions and subsequently evaluate the model performance. Our results reflect China, India, Africa, Latin America, the USA, and Europe as the main contributors to global NH3 emissions, accounting for 80 % of the total budget. The global calculated emissions reach 44 Tg N yr−1 over the 2005–2015 period, which is within the range estimated by previous work. Key parameters (e.g., the pH of the manure, timing of N application, and atmospheric NH3 surface concentration) that drive the soil emissions have also been tested in order to assess the sensitivity of our model. Manure pH is the parameter to which modeled emissions are the most sensitive, with a 10 % change in emissions per percent change in pH. Even though we found an underestimation in our emissions over Europe (−26 %) and an overestimation in the USA (+56 %) compared with previous work, other hot spot regions are consistent. The calculated emission seasonality is in very good agreement with satellite-based emissions. These encouraging results prove the potential of coupling ORCHIDEE land-based emissions to CTMs, which are currently forced by bottom-up anthropogenic-centered inventories such as the CEDS (Community Emissions Data System).

2023

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