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Health impacts of PM2.5 originating from residential wood combustion in four nordic cities

Orru, Hans; Olstrup, Henrik; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Segersson, David; Geels, Camilla; Tamm, Tanel; Riikonen, Kari; Maragkidou, Androniki; Sigsgaard, Torben; Brandt, Jørgen; Grythe, Henrik; Forsberg, Bertil

Residential wood combustion (RWC) is one of the largest sources of fine particles (PM2.5) in the Nordic cities. The current study aims to calculate the related health effects in four studied city areas in Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark.

BioMed Central (BMC)

2022

Potential environmental impact of bromoform from Asparagopsis farming in Australia

Jia, Yue; Quack, Birgit; Kinley, Robert D.; Pisso, Ignacio

To mitigate the rumen enteric methane (CH4) produced by ruminant livestock, Asparagopsis taxiformis is proposed as an additive to ruminant feed. During the cultivation of Asparagopsis taxiformis in the sea or in terrestrially based systems, this macroalgae, like most seaweeds and phytoplankton, produces a large amount of bromoform (CHBr3), which contributes to ozone depletion once released into the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on the impact of CHBr3 on the stratospheric ozone layer resulting from potential emissions from proposed Asparagopsis cultivation in Australia. The impact is assessed by weighting the emissions of CHBr3 with its ozone depletion potential (ODP), which is traditionally defined for long-lived halocarbons but has also been applied to very short-lived substances (VSLSs). An annual yield of ∼3.5 × 104 Mg dry weight is required to meet the needs of 50 % of the beef feedlot and dairy cattle in Australia. Our study shows that the intensity and impact of CHBr3 emissions vary, depending on location and cultivation scenarios. Of the proposed locations, tropical farms near the Darwin region are associated with the largest CHBr3 ODP values. However, farming of Asparagopsis using either ocean or terrestrial cultivation systems at any of the proposed locations does not have the potential to significantly impact the ozone layer. Even if all Asparagopsis farming were performed in Darwin, the CHBr3 emitted into the atmosphere would amount to less than 0.02 % of the global ODP-weighted emissions. The impact of remaining farming scenarios is also relatively small even if the intended annual yield in Darwin is scaled by a factor of 30 to meet the global requirements, which will increase the global ODP-weighted emissions up to ∼0.5 %.

2022

Risk-benefit assessment of sunscreen: Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food, and Cosmetics of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment

Bruzell, Ellen; Carlsen, Monica Hauger; Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Denison, Eva Marie-Louise; Devold, Tove Gulbrandsen; Granum, Berit; Mathisen, Gro Haarklou; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Rasinger, Josef; Rohloff, Jens; Svendsen, Camilla; Husøy, Trine

2022

Electrocatalytic performance of oxygen-activated carbon fibre felt anodes mediating degradation mechanism of acetaminophen in aqueous environments

Jakobczyk, Pawel; Skowierzak, Grzegorz; Kaczmarzyk, Iwona; Nadolska, Malgorzata; Wcislo, Anna; Lota, Katarzyna; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Ossowski, Tadeusz; Rostkowski, Pawel Marian; Lota, Gregorz; Ryl, Jacek

Carbon felts are flexible and scalable, have high specific areas, and are highly conductive materials that fit the requirements for both anodes and cathodes in advanced electrocatalytic processes. Advanced oxidative modification processes (thermal, chemical, and plasma-chemical) were applied to carbon felt anodes to enhance their efficiency towards electro-oxidation. The modification of the porous anodes results in increased kinetics of acetaminophen degradation in aqueous environments. The utilised oxidation techniques deliver single-step, straightforward, eco-friendly, and stable physiochemical reformation of carbon felt surfaces. The modifications caused minor changes in both the specific surface area and total pore volume corresponding with the surface morphology.

A pristine carbon felt electrode was capable of decomposing up to 70% of the acetaminophen in a 240 min electrolysis process, while the oxygen-plasma treated electrode achieved a removal yield of 99.9% estimated utilising HPLC-UV-Vis. Here, the electro-induced incineration kinetics of acetaminophen resulted in a rate constant of 1.54 h−1, with the second-best result of 0.59 h−1 after oxidation in 30% H2O2. The kinetics of acetaminophen removal was synergistically studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques, revealing various reaction pathways attributed to the formation of intermediate compounds such as p-aminophenol and others.

The enhancement of the electrochemical oxidation rates towards acetaminophen was attributed to the appearance of surface carbonyl species. Our results indicate that the best-performing plasma-chemical treated CFE follows a heterogeneous mechanism with only approx. 40% removal due to direct electro-oxidation. The degradation mechanism of acetaminophen at the treated carbon felt anodes was proposed based on the detected intermediate products. Estimation of the cost-effectiveness of removal processes, in terms of energy consumption, was also elaborated. Although the study was focussed on acetaminophen, the achieved results could be adapted to also process emerging, hazardous pollutant groups such as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals.

Pergamon Press

2022

Thymidine Kinase+/− Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity Assays for Assessment of Nanomaterials

Chen, Tao; Dusinska, Maria; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

The methods outlined here are part of a series of papers designed specifically for genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials (NM). Common Considerations such as NM characterization, sample preparation and dose selection, relevant to all genotoxicity assays, are found in an accompanying paper. The present paper describes methods for evaluation of mutagenicity in the mammalian (mouse) thymidine kinase (Tk) gene occurring in L5178Y mouse lymphoma (ML) cells and in the designated TK gene in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Mutations change the functional genotype from TK+/− to TK−/−, detectable as cells surviving on media selective for the lack of thymidine kinase (TK) function. Unlike cells with TK enzyme function, the TK−/− cells are unable to integrate the toxic selection agent, allowing these cells to survive as rare mutant colonies. The ML assay has been shown to detect a broad spectrum of genetic damage, including both small scale (point) mutations and chromosomal alterations. This assay is a widely used mammalian cell gene mutation assay for regulatory purposes and is included in the core battery of genotoxicity tests for regulatory decision-making. The TK6 assay is an assay using a human cell line derived similarly via mutagenic manipulations and optimal selection. Details are provided on the materials required, cell culture methods, selection of test chemical concentrations, cytotoxicity, treatment time, mutation expression, cloning, and data calculation and interpretation. The methods describe the microwell plate version of the assays without metabolic activation.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Common Considerations for Genotoxicity Assessment of Nanomaterials

Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Doak, Shareen H.; Collins, Andrew Richard; Dusinska, Maria; Pfuhler, Stefan; Manjanatha, Mugimane; Cardoso, Renato M.S.; Chen, Connie L.

Genotoxicity testing is performed to determine potential hazard of a chemical or agent for direct or indirect DNA interaction. Testing may be a surrogate for assessment of heritable genetic risk or carcinogenic risk. Testing of nanomaterials (NM) for hazard identification is generally understood to require a departure from normal testing procedures found in international standards and guidelines. A critique of the genotoxicity literature in Elespuru et al., 2018, reinforced evidence of problems with genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials (NM) noted by many previously. A follow-up to the critique of problems (what is wrong) is a series of methods papers in this journal designed to provide practical information on what is appropriate (right) in the performance of genotoxicity assays altered for NM assessment. In this “Common Considerations” paper, general considerations are addressed, including NM characterization, sample preparation, dosing choice, exposure assessment (uptake) and data analysis that are applicable to any NM genotoxicity assessment. Recommended methods for specific assays are presented in a series of additional papers in this special issue of the journal devoted to toxicology methods for assessment of nanomaterials: the In vitro Micronucleus Assay, TK Mutagenicity assays, and the In vivo Comet Assay. In this context, NM are considered generally as insoluble particles or test articles in the nanometer size range that present difficulties in assessment using techniques described in standards such as OECD guidelines.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Ecosystem specific accumulation of organohalogenated compounds: A comparison between adjacent freshwater and terrestrial avian predators

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Herzke, Dorte; Bangjord, Georg; Bourgeon, Sophie; Fritsch, Clémentine; Eulaers, Igor

Insight into processes determining the exposure of organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) in wildlife might be gained from comparing predators in different ecosystems. This study compared two avian predator species with similar food chain lengths: the goldeneye duck (Bucephala clangula) and the tawny owl (Strix aluco) breeding in adjacent freshwater- and terrestrial ecosystems in central Norway. We measured lipophilic organochlorines (OCs) and protein-bound perfluorinated substances (PFASs) in eggs of the two species over 21 years (1999–2019). Across years, the proportional distribution of OCs (∼90% of the ΣOHC load) relative to PFASs (∼10%) was similar in the two species. Moreover, ΣOC concentrations were similar between the species, but PFAS compounds were 2–12 times higher in the goldeneyes than in tawny owls. OC-pesticides dominated in tawny owls (∼60% of ΣOC), whereas persistent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners were the main OC components in goldeneyes (∼70% of ΣOC). The lipid-normalized concentrations of most OC-pesticides and the less persistent PCB101 declined significantly in both species. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE), and more persistent PCBs decreased in tawny owls, while they tended to increase in goldeneyes. The increase in HCB was particulary robust. Among the PFASs, contrasted temporal trends were found across the species for four out of 11 compounds: PFOS declined while most perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) increased in tawny owls. In contrast, most PFASs were stable in goldeneyes. Moreover, there was no annual covariance between the OHC exposure in the two species: i.e., high concentrations in one species in a given year did not translate into high concentrations in the other. Hence, the two avian predators in adjacent ecosystems seem to be subject to different processes determining the OHC exposure, probably related to variation in diet and climate, long-range transport of different contaminants, and emissions of pollution locally.

Elsevier

2022

Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulate the Immune Response and Decrease Antioxidant Defense in Mice After Six-Week Inhalation

Tulinska, Jana; Mikusova, Miroslava Lehotska; Liskova, Aurelia; Busova, Milena; Masanova, Vlasta; Uhnakova, Iveta; Rollerova, Eva; Alacova, Radka; Krivosikova, Zora; Wsolova, Ladislava; Dusinska, Maria; Horváthová, Mira; Szabova, Michaela; Lukan, Norbert; Stuchlikova, Martina; Kuba, Daniel; Vecera, Zbynek; Coufalik, Pavel; Krumal, Kamil; Alexa, Lukas; Vrlikova, Lucie; Buchtova, Marcela; Dumkova, Jana; Piler, Pavel; Thon, Vojtech; Mikuska, Pavel

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are increasingly used in various industry sectors. Moreover, medical application of CuO NPs as antimicrobials also contributes to human exposure. Their toxicity, including toxicity to the immune system and blood, raises concerns, while information on their immunotoxicity is still very limited. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effects of CuO NPs (number concentration 1.40×106 particles/cm3, geometric mean diameter 20.4 nm) on immune/inflammatory response and antioxidant defense in mice exposed to 32.5 µg CuO/m3 continuously for 6 weeks. After six weeks of CuO NP inhalation, the content of copper in lungs and liver was significantly increased, while in kidneys, spleen, brain, and blood it was similar in exposed and control mice. Inhalation of CuO NPs caused a significant increase in proliferative response of T-lymphocytes after mitogenic stimulation and basal proliferative activity of splenocytes. CuO NPs significantly induced the production of IL-12p70, Th1-cytokine IFN-γ and Th2-cytokines IL-4, IL-5. Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 remained unchanged. Immune assays showed significantly suppressed phagocytic activity of granulocytes and slightly decreased respiratory burst. No significant differences in phagocytosis of monocytes were recorded. The percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD3-CD19+ cell subsets in spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes did not differ between exposed and control animals. No changes in hematological parameters were found between the CuO NP exposed and control groups. The overall antioxidant protection status of the organism was expressed by evaluation of GSH and GSSG concentrations in blood samples. The experimental group exposed to CuO NPs showed a significant decrease in GSH concentration in comparison to the control group. In summary, our results indicate that sub-chronic inhalation of CuO NPs can cause undesired modulation of the immune response. Stimulation of adaptive immunity was indicated by activation of proliferation and secretion functions of lymphocytes. CuO NPs elicited pro-activation state of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in exposed mice. Innate immunity was affected by impaired phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Reduced glutathione was significantly decreased in mice exposed to CuO NPs.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

Temporal Trends of Organochlorine and Perfluorinated Contaminants in a Terrestrial Raptor in Northern Europe Over 34 years (1986–2019)

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Herzke, Dorte; Bangjord, Georg; Bourgeon, Sophie; Fritsch, Clémentine; Eulaers, Igor

Fourteen legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants and 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in eggs of tawny owls (Strix alueco) in central Norway (1986–2019). We expected OCs to have reached stable equilibrium levels due to bans, and that recent phase-out of some PFASs would have slowed the increase of these compounds. ∑OC comprised on average approximately 92% of the measured compounds, whereas ∑PFAS accounted for approximately 8%. However, whereas the ∑OC to ∑PFAS ratio was approximately 60 in the first 5 years of the study, it was only approximately 11 in the last 5 years. Both OC pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed substantial declines over the study period (~85%–98%): hexachlorocyclohexanes and chlordanes seemed to be levelling off, whereas p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlororbenzene (HCB), and most PCB congeners still seemed to decline at a more or less constant rate. While the concentration of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominating PFAS, was reduced by approximately 43%, other perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) showed only minor changes. Moreover, the median concentrations of seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) increased approximately five-fold over the study period. Perfluorononanoic acid and perfluoroundecanoate acid, however, seemed to be levelling off in recent years. In contrast, perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorodecanoate acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid seemed to increase more or less linearily. Finally, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was increasingly likely to be detected over the study period. Hence, most legacy OCs and PFOS have not reached a lower threshold with stable background levels, and voluntary elimination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates still has not resulted in declining levels in tawny owls in central Norway.

Pergamon Press

2022

Impact of 3D cloud structures on the atmospheric trace gas products from UV–Vis sounders – Part 3: Bias estimate using synthetic and observational data

Kylling, Arve; Emde, Claudia; Yu, Huan; van Roozendael, Michel; Stebel, Kerstin; Veihelmann, Ben; Mayer, Bernhard

Three-dimensional (3D) cloud structures may impact atmospheric trace gas products from ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) sounders. We used synthetic and observational data to identify and quantify possible cloud-related bias in NO2 tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD). The synthetic data were based on high-resolution large eddy simulations which were input to a 3D radiative transfer model. The simulated visible spectra for low-earth-orbiting and geostationary geometries were analysed with standard retrieval methods and cloud correction schemes that are employed in operational NO2 satellite products. For the observational data, the NO2 products from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) were used, while the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) provided high-spatial-resolution cloud and radiance data. NO2 profile shape, cloud shadow fraction, cloud top height, cloud optical depth, and solar zenith and viewing angles were identified as the metrics being the most important in identifying 3D cloud impacts on NO2 TVCD retrievals. For a solar zenith angle less than about 40∘ the synthetic data show that the NO2 TVCD bias is typically below 10 %, while for larger solar zenith angles the NO2 TVCD is low-biased by tens of percent. The horizontal variability of NO2 and differences in TROPOMI and VIIRS overpass times make it challenging to identify a similar bias in the observational data. However, for optically thick clouds above 3000 m, a low bias appears to be present in the observational data.

2022

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