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The AirGAM 2022r1 air quality trend and prediction model

Walker, Sam-Erik; Solberg, Sverre; Guerreiro, Cristina

This paper presents the AirGAM 2022r1 model – an air quality trend and prediction model developed at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) in cooperation with the European Environment Agency (EEA) over 2017–2021. AirGAM is based on nonlinear regression GAMs – generalised additive models – capable of estimating trends in daily measured pollutant concentrations at air quality monitoring stations, discounting for the effects of trends and time variations in corresponding meteorological data. The model has been developed primarily for the compounds NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5. Meteorological input data consist of temperature, wind speed and direction, planetary boundary layer height, relative and absolute humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation over the period considered. The exact set of meteorological variables used in the model depends on the compound selected for analysis. In addition to meteorological variables introduced in the model as covariates, i.e. explanatory variables for the concentration levels, the model also incorporates time variables such as the day of the week, day of the year, and overall time, which is related to the model's trend term. The trend analysis is performed at each station separately. Thus, the model only considers the temporal features of concentrations and meteorology at a station, rather than any spatial correlations or dependencies between stations. AirGAM is implemented using the R language for statistical computing and, in particular, the GAM package mgcv. In the model, meteorological and time covariates are represented and estimated as smooth nonlinear functions of the corresponding variables. Thus, the trend term is defined and estimated as a smooth nonlinear function of time over the period selected for analysis. Once fitted to training data, the model may be used as a prediction tool capable of predicting air pollutant concentrations for new sets of meteorological and time data which are not in the training set – e.g. for cross-validation or forecasting purposes. The model does not explicitly use emissions or background concentrations – these are sought to be implicitly represented through the estimated nonlinear relations between meteorology, time, and concentrations. In addition to meteorology-adjusted trends, the program also produces unadjusted trends – i.e. trends based on the same regression set-up but only including the time covariates. Both types of trends can be output in the same run, making it possible to compare them. Ideally, the meteorology-adjusted trend will show the trend in concentration mainly due to changes in emissions or physicochemical processes not induced by changes in meteorology. AirGAM has been developed and tested primarily in trend studies based on measurement data hosted by the EEA, including the AirBase data (before 2013) and the Air Quality e-Reporting (AQER) data from 2013 and onwards. Still, the model is general and could be applied in other regions with other input data. The EEA data provide daily or hourly surface measurements at individual monitoring stations in Europe. For input meteorological data, we extract time series from the gridded meteorological re-analysis (ERA5) provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for each monitoring station. The paper presents results with the model for all AirBase/AQER stations in Europe from the latest EEA trend study for 2005–2019.

2023

Different Sensitivity of Advanced Bronchial and Alveolar Mono- and Coculture Models for Hazard Assessment of Nanomaterials

Elje, Elisabeth; Mariussen, Espen; McFadden, Erin; Dusinska, Maria; Rundén-Pran, Elise

For the next-generation risk assessment (NGRA) of chemicals and nanomaterials, new approach methodologies (NAMs) are needed for hazard assessment in compliance with the 3R’s to reduce, replace and refine animal experiments. This study aimed to establish and characterize an advanced respiratory model consisting of human epithelial bronchial BEAS-2B cells cultivated at the air–liquid interface (ALI), both as monocultures and in cocultures with human endothelial EA.hy926 cells. The performance of the bronchial models was compared to a commonly used alveolar model consisting of A549 in monoculture and in coculture with EA.hy926 cells. The cells were exposed at the ALI to nanosilver (NM-300K) in the VITROCELL® Cloud. After 24 h, cellular viability (alamarBlue assay), inflammatory response (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), DNA damage (enzyme-modified comet assay), and chromosomal damage (cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay) were measured. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by NM-300K were dependent on both the cell types and model, where BEAS-2B in monocultures had the highest sensitivity in terms of cell viability and DNA strand breaks. This study indicates that the four ALI lung models have different sensitivities to NM-300K exposure and brings important knowledge for the further development of advanced 3D respiratory in vitro models for the most reliable human hazard assessment based on NAMs.

MDPI

2023

Does contaminant exposure disrupt maternal hormones deposition? A study on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in an Arctic seabird

Jouanneau, William; Léandri-Breton, Don-Jean; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Pallud, Marie; Parenteau, Charline; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

Elsevier

2023

Arctic tropospheric ozone: assessment of current knowledge and model performance

Whaley, Cynthia; Law, Kathy S.; Hjorth, Jens Liengaard; Skov, Henrik; Arnold, Stephen R.; Langner, Joakim; Pernov, Jakob Boyd; Bergeron, Garance; Bourgeois, Ilann; Christensen, Jesper H.; Chien, Rong-You; Deushi, Makoto; Dong, Xinyi; Effertz, Peter; Faluvegi, Gregory; Flanner, Mark G.; Fu, Joshua S.; Gauss, Michael; Huey, Greg L.; Im, Ulas; Kivi, Rigel; Marelle, Louis; Onishi, Tatsuo; Oshima, Naga; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Peischl, Jeff; Plummer, David A.; Pozzoli, Luca; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Ryerson, Tom; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Solberg, Sverre; Thomas, Manu Anna; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tsyro, Svetlana; Turnock, Steven T.; von Salzen, Knut; Tarasick, David

As the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), tropospheric ozone (O3) is also an air pollutant causing damage to human health and ecosystems. This study brings together recent research on observations and modeling of tropospheric O3 in the Arctic, a rapidly warming and sensitive environment. At different locations in the Arctic, the observed surface O3 seasonal cycles are quite different. Coastal Arctic locations, for example, have a minimum in the springtime due to O3 depletion events resulting from surface bromine chemistry. In contrast, other Arctic locations have a maximum in the spring. The 12 state-of-the-art models used in this study lack the surface halogen chemistry needed to simulate coastal Arctic surface O3 depletion in the springtime; however, the multi-model median (MMM) has accurate seasonal cycles at non-coastal Arctic locations. There is a large amount of variability among models, which has been previously reported, and we show that there continues to be no convergence among models or improved accuracy in simulating tropospheric O3 and its precursor species. The MMM underestimates Arctic surface O3 by 5 % to 15 % depending on the location. The vertical distribution of tropospheric O3 is studied from recent ozonesonde measurements and the models. The models are highly variable, simulating free-tropospheric O3 within a range of ±50 % depending on the model and the altitude. The MMM performs best, within ±8 % for most locations and seasons. However, nearly all models overestimate O3 near the tropopause (∼300 hPa or ∼8 km), likely due to ongoing issues with underestimating the altitude of the tropopause and excessive downward transport of stratospheric O3 at high latitudes. For example, the MMM is biased high by about 20 % at Eureka. Observed and simulated O3 precursors (CO, NOx, and reservoir PAN) are evaluated throughout the troposphere. Models underestimate wintertime CO everywhere, likely due to a combination of underestimating CO emissions and possibly overestimating OH. Throughout the vertical profile (compared to aircraft measurements), the MMM underestimates both CO and NOx but overestimates PAN. Perhaps as a result of competing deficiencies, the MMM O3 matches the observed O3 reasonably well. Our findings suggest that despite model updates over the last decade, model results are as highly variable as ever and have not increased in accuracy for representing Arctic tropospheric O3.

2023

Spatial distribution of Dechlorane Plus and dechlorane related compounds in European background air

Skogeng, Lovise Pedersen; Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Breivik, Knut; Eckhardt, Sabine; Herzke, Dorte; Moeckel, Claudia; Krogseth, Ingjerd Sunde

The highly chlorinated chemical Dechlorane Plus (DP) was introduced as a replacement flame retardant for Mirex, which is banned through the Stockholm Convention (SC) for its toxicity (T), environmental persistence (P), potential for bioaccumulation (B) and long-range environmental transport potential (LRETP). Currently, Dechlorane Plus is under consideration for listing under the Stockholm Convention and by the European Chemical Agency as it is suspected to also have potential for P, B, T and LRET. Knowledge of atmospheric concentrations of chemicals in background regions is vital to understand their persistence and long-range atmospheric transport but such knowledge is still limited for Dechlorane Plus. Also, knowledge on environmental occurrence of the less described Dechlorane Related Compounds (DRCs), with similar properties and uses as Dechlorane Plus, is limited. Hence, the main objective of this study was to carry out a spatial mapping of atmospheric concentrations of Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane Related Compounds at background sites in Europe. Polyurethane foam passive air samplers were deployed at 99 sites across 33 European countries for 3 months in summer 2016 and analyzed for dechloranes. The study showed that syn- and anti-DP are present across the European continent...

Frontiers Media S.A.

2023

Modelling the 2021 East Asia super dust storm using FLEXPART and FLEXDUST and its comparison with reanalyses and observations

Tang, Hui; Haugvaldstad, Ove Westermoen; Stordal, Frode; Bi, Jianrong; Zwaaftink, Christine Groot; Grythe, Henrik; Wang, Bin; Rao, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhongshi; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Kaakinen, Anu

The 2021 East Asia sandstorm began from the Eastern Gobi desert steppe in Mongolia on March 14, and later spread to northern China and the Korean Peninsula. It was the biggest sandstorm to hit China in a decade, causing severe air pollution and a significant threat to human health. Capturing and predicting such extreme events is critical for society. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART and the associated dust emission model FLEXDUST have been recently developed and applied to simulate global dust cycles. However, how well the model captures Asian dust storm events remains to be explored. In this study, we applied FLEXPART to simulate the recent 2021 East Asia sandstorm, and evaluated its performance comparing with observation and observation-constrained reanalysis datasets, such as the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) and CAMS global atmospheric composition forecasts (CAMS-F). We found that the default setting of FLEXDUST substantially underestimates the strength of dust emission and FLEXPART modelled dust concentration in this storm compared to that in MERRA-2 and CAMS-F. An improvement of the parametrization of bare soil fraction, topographical scaling, threshold friction velocity and vertical dust flux scheme based on Kok et al. (Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2014, 14, 13023–13041) in FLEXDUST can reproduce the strength and spatio-temporal pattern of the dust storm comparable to MERRA-2 and CAMS-F. However, it still underestimates the observed spike of dust concentration during the dust storm event over northern China, and requires further improvement in the future. The improved FLEXDUST and FLEXPART perform better than MERRA-2 and CAMS-F in capturing the observed particle size distribution of dust aerosols, highlighting the importance of using more dust size bins and size-dependent parameterization for dust emission, and dry and wet deposition schemes for modelling the Asian dust cycle and its climatic feedbacks.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2023

Genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to glass fibres - A human biomonitoring study

Ceppi, Marcello; Smolkova, Bozena ; Staruchova, Marta; Kazimirova, Alena; Barancokova, Magdalena; Volkovova, Katarina; Collins, Andrew Richard; Kocan, Anton; Dzupinkova, Zuzana; Horska, Alexandra; Buocikova, Verona; Tulinska, Jana; Liskova, Aurelia; Mikusova, Miroslava Lehotska; Wsolova, Ladislava; Kuba, Daniel; Rundén-Pran, Elise; El Yamani, Naouale; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Halasova, Erika; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Bonassi, Stefano ; Dusinska, Maria

As part of a large human biomonitoring study, we conducted occupational monitoring in a glass fibre factory in Slovakia. Shopfloor workers (n = 80), with a matched group of administrators in the same factory (n = 36), were monitored for exposure to glass fibres and to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The impact of occupational exposure on chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and DNA repair, immunomodulatory markers, and the role of nutritional and lifestyle factors, as well as the effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on genetic stability, were investigated.

The (enzyme-modified) comet assay was employed to measure DNA strand breaks (SBs) and apurinic sites, oxidised and alkylated bases. Antioxidant status was estimated by resistance to H2O2-induced DNA damage. Base excision repair capacity was measured with an in vitro assay (based on the comet assay).

Exposure of workers to fibres was low, but still was associated with higher levels of SBs, and SBs plus oxidised bases, and higher sensitivity to H2O2. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure increased the risk of high levels of SBs by 20%. DNA damage was influenced by antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase (measured in blood). DNA repair capacity was inversely correlated with DNA damage and positively with antioxidant status. An inverse correlation was found between DNA base oxidation and the percentage of eosinophils (involved in the inflammatory response) in peripheral blood of both exposed and reference groups. Genotypes of XRCC1 variants rs3213245 and rs25487 significantly decreased the risk of high levels of base oxidation, to 0.50 (p = 0.001) and 0.59 (p = 0.001), respectively.

Increases in DNA damage owing to glass fibre exposure were significant but modest, and no increases were seen in chromosome aberrations or micronuclei. However, it is of concern that even low levels of exposure to these fibres can cause significant genetic damage.

2023

State of the Climate in 2021: The Arctic

Thoman, Richard L.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Moon, Twila A.; Andreassen, Liss Marie; Baker, E.; Ballinger, Thomas J.; Berner, Logan T.; Bernhard, Germar H.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Boisvert, L.N.; Box, Jason E.; Brettschneider, B.; Burgess, D; Butler, Amy H.; Cappelen, John; Christiansen, Hanne H; Decharme, Bertrand; Derksen, C.; Divine, Dmitry V; Drozdov, D. S.; Elias, Chereque A.; Epstein, Howard E.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fettweis, Xavier; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Frost, Gerald V.; Gerland, Sebastian; Goetz, Scott J.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Haas, Christian; Hanna, Edward; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Hendricks, Stefan; Ialongo, Iolanda; Isaksen, Ketil; Jensen, C.D.; Johnsen, Bjørn; Kaleschke, L.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kohler, Jack; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Labe, Zachary; Lakkala, Kaisa; Lara, Mark J.; Svendby, Tove Marit; Tømmervik, Hans

American Meteorological Society

2022

Development of a Novel Framework for the Assessment and Improvement of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Actions in Europe

Sæbø, Arne; Rodriguez, Divina Gracia P.; Gioli, Beniamino; Tuomasjukka, Diana; Liu, Hai Ying; Pastore, Maria Chiara; Fabio, Salbitano; Bogetoft, Peter; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

What do we know about the production and release of persistent organic pollutants in the global environment?

Li, Li; Cheng, Chengkang; Li, Dingsheng; Breivik, Knut; Abbasi, Golnoush; Li, Yi-Fan

Information on the global production and environmental releases of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of critical importance for regulating and eliminating these chemical substances of worldwide environmental and health concerns. Here, we conduct an extensive literature review to collect and curate quantitative information on the historical global production and multimedia environmental releases of 25 intentionally produced POPs. Our assembled data indicate that as of 2020, a cumulative total of 31 306 kilotonnes (kt) of the 25 POPs had been synthesized and commercialized worldwide, resulting in cumulative releases of 20 348 kt into the global environment. As of 2020, short-chain chlorinated paraffins were the most produced POP, with a historical global cumulative tonnage amounting to 8795 kt, whereas α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) had the largest historical global cumulative environmental releases of 6567 kt among these 25 POPs. The 1970s witnessed the peak in the annual global production of the 25 investigated POPs. The United States and Europe used to be the hotspots of environmental releases of the 25 investigated POPs, notably in the 1960s and 1970s. By contrast, global environmental releases occurred primarily in China in the 2000s–2010s. Preliminary efforts are also made to integrate the production volume information with “hazard” attributes (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range transport potential) in the evaluation of potential environmental impacts of the 25 POPs. The results show that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potentially associated with higher environmental impacts than other POPs because they are among the top rankings in both the global cumulative production and hazard indicators. This work for the first time reveals the astonishing magnitudes of POP production and environmental releases in contemporary human history. It also underscores the importance of tonnage information in assessments of POPs, POP candidates, and other chemicals of emerging concern.

2022

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