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An NO2 sensor based on WO3 thin films for automotive applications in the microwave frequency range

Paleczek, Anna; Grochala, D.; Staszek, K.; Gruszczynski, S.; Maciak, Erwin; Opilski, Zbigniew; Kaluzynski, Piotr; Wojcikowski, Marek; Cao, Tuan-Vu; Rydosz, A.

2022

Plastic burdens in northern fulmars from Svalbard: looking back 25 years

Collard, France; Bangjord, Georg; Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

The northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis ingests a larger number of (micro)plastics than many other seabirds due to its feeding habits and gut morphology. Since 2002, they are bioindicators of marine plastics in the North Sea region, and data are needed to extend the programme to other parts of their distribution areas, such as the Arctic. In this study, we provide data on ingested plastics by fulmars collected in 1997 in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. An extraction protocol with KOH was used and for half of the birds, the gizzard and the proventricular contents were analysed separately. Ninety-one percent of the birds had ingested at least one piece of plastic with an average of 10.3 (±11.9 SD) pieces. The gizzards contained significantly more plastics than the proventriculus. Hard fragments and polyethylene were the most common characteristics. Twelve percent of the birds exceeded the EcoQO value of 0.1 g.

Elsevier

2022

Plastic ingestion and associated additives in Faroe Islands chicks of the Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis

Collard, France; Leconte, Simon; Danielsen, Johannis; Halsband, Claudia; Herzke, Dorte; Harju, Mikael; Tulatz, Felix; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Tarroux, Arnaud

Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) are a pelagic seabird species distributed at northern and polar latitudes. They are often used as an indicator of plastic pollution in the North Sea region, but data are lacking from higher latitudes, especially when it comes to chicks. Here, we investigated amounts of ingested plastic and their characteristics in fulmar chicks from the Faroe Islands. Plastic particles (1 mm) in chicks of two age classes were searched using a digestion method with KOH. In addition, to evaluate if additive tissue burden reflects plastic ingestion, we measured liver tissue concentrations of two pollutant classes associated with plastic materials: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and several dechloranes, using gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most common shape was hard fragment (81%) and the most common polymer was polyethylene (73%). Plastic contamination did not differ between either age class, and we found no correlation between neither the amount and mass of plastic particles and the concentration of additives. After comparison with previous studies on adult fulmars, we do not recommend using chicks for biomonitoring adults because chicks seem to ingest more plastics than adults.

2022

Plastics as a carrier of chemical additives to the Arctic: possibilities for strategic monitoring across the circumpolar North

Hamilton, Bonnie M.; Baak, Julia E.; Vorkamp, Katrin; Hammer, Sjúrður; Granberg, Maria; Herzke, Dorte; Provencher, Jennifer F.

Plastic pollution (including microplastics) has been reported in a variety of biotic and abiotic compartments across the circumpolar Arctic. Due to their environmental ubiquity, there is a need to understand not only the fate and transport of physical plastic particles, but also the fate and transport of additive chemicals associated with plastic pollution. Further, there is a fundamental research gap in understanding long-range transport of chemical additives to the Arctic via plastics as well as their behavior under environmentally relevant Arctic conditions. Here, we comment on the state of the science of plastic as carriers of chemical additives to the Arctic, and highlight research priorities going forward. We suggest further research on the transport pathways of chemical additives via plastics from both distant and local sources and laboratory experiments to investigate chemical behavior of plastic additives under Arctic conditions, including leaching, uptake, and bioaccumulation. Ultimately, chemical additives need to be included in strategic monitoring efforts to fully understand the contaminant burden of plastic pollution in Arctic ecosystems.

2022

Comparison of particle number size distribution trends in ground measurements and climate models

Leinonen, Ville; Kokkola, Harri; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Mielonen, Tero; Kühn, Thomas; Nieminen, Tuomo; Heikkinen, Simo; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Bergman, Tommi; Carslaw, Ken; Decesari, Stefano; Fiebig, Markus; Hussein, Tareq; Kivekäs, Niku; Krejci, Radovan; Kulmala, Markku; Leskinen, Ari; Massling, Andreas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Mulcahy, Jane P.; Noe, Steffen M.; Van Noije, Twan; O'connor, Fiona M.; O'dowd, Colin; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Pernov, Jakob B.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael; Scott, Catherine E.; Skov, Henrik; Swietlicki, Erik; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Virtanen, Annele; Mikkonen, Santtu

Despite a large number of studies, out of all drivers of radiative forcing, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of particle number concentrations in nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes at 21 measurement sites in Europe and the Arctic. For 13 of those sites, with longer measurement time series, we compared the field observations with the results from five climate models, namely EC-Earth3, ECHAM-M7, ECHAM-SALSA, NorESM1.2, and UKESM1. This is the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five earth system models (ESMs). We found that the trends of particle number concentrations were mostly consistent and decreasing in both measurements and models. However, for many sites, climate models showed weaker decreasing trends than the measurements. Seasonal variability in measured number concentrations, quantified by the ratio between maximum and minimum monthly number concentration, was typically stronger at northern measurement sites compared to other locations. Models had large differences in their seasonal representation, and they can be roughly divided into two categories: for EC-Earth and NorESM, the seasonal cycle was relatively similar for all sites, and for other models the pattern of seasonality varied between northern and southern sites. In addition, the variability in concentrations across sites varied between models, some having relatively similar concentrations for all sites, whereas others showed clear differences in concentrations between remote and urban sites. To conclude, although all of the model simulations had identical input data to describe anthropogenic mass emissions, trends in differently sized particles vary among the models due to assumptions in emission sizes and differences in how models treat size-dependent aerosol processes. The inter-model variability was largest in the accumulation mode, i.e. sizes which have implications for aerosol–cloud interactions. Our analysis also indicates that between models there is a large variation in efficiency of long-range transportation of aerosols to remote locations. The differences in model results are most likely due to the more complex effect of different processes instead of one specific feature (e.g. the representation of aerosol or emission size distributions). Hence, a more detailed characterization of microphysical processes and deposition processes affecting the long-range transport is needed to understand the model variability.

2022

An actionable annotation scoring framework for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Xie, Hongyu; Price, Elliott J.; Lin, Elizabeth; Manz, Katherine E.; Stelben, Paul J.; Paige, Matthew K.; Papazian, Stefano; Okeme, Joseph; Rostkowski, Pawel Marian; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Wang, Thanh; Hu, Xin; Lai, Yunjia; Miller, Gary W.; Walker, Douglas; Martin, Jonathan W.; Pollitt, Krystal J. Godri

Omics-based technologies have enabled comprehensive characterization of our exposure to environmental chemicals (chemical exposome) as well as assessment of the corresponding biological responses at the molecular level (eg, metabolome, lipidome, proteome, and genome). By systematically measuring personal exposures and linking these stimuli to biological perturbations, researchers can determine specific chemical exposures of concern, identify mechanisms and biomarkers of toxicity, and design interventions to reduce exposures. However, further advancement of metabolomics and exposomics approaches is limited by a lack of standardization and approaches for assigning confidence to chemical annotations. While a wealth of chemical data is generated by gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), incorporating GC-HRMS data into an annotation framework and communicating confidence in these assignments is challenging. It is essential to be able to compare chemical data for exposomics studies across platforms to build upon prior knowledge and advance the technology. Here, we discuss the major pieces of evidence provided by common GC-HRMS workflows, including retention time and retention index, electron ionization, positive chemical ionization, electron capture negative ionization, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization spectral matching, molecular ion, accurate mass, isotopic patterns, database occurrence, and occurrence in blanks. We then provide a qualitative framework for incorporating these various lines of evidence for communicating confidence in GC-HRMS data by adapting the Schymanski scoring schema developed for reporting confidence levels by liquid chromatography HRMS (LC-HRMS). Validation of our framework is presented using standards spiked in plasma, and confident annotations in outdoor and indoor air samples, showing a false-positive rate of 12% for suspect screening for chemical identifications assigned as Level 2 (when structurally similar isomers are not considered false positives). This framework is easily adaptable to various workflows and provides a concise means to communicate confidence in annotations. Further validation, refinements, and adoption of this framework will ideally lead to harmonization across the field, helping to improve the quality and interpretability of compound annotations obtained in GC-HRMS.

2022

The miniaturized enzyme-modified comet assay for genotoxicity testing of nanomaterials

El Yamani, Naouale; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Collins, Andrew Richard; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Elje, Elisabeth; Hoet, Peter; Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Doak, Shareen H.; Fessard, Valérie; Dusinska, Maria

The in vitro comet assay is a widely applied method for investigating genotoxicity of chemicals including engineered nanomaterials (NMs). A big challenge in hazard assessment of NMs is possible interference between the NMs and reagents or read-out of the test assay, leading to a risk of biased results. Here, we describe both the standard alkaline version of the in vitro comet assay with 12 mini-gels per slide for detection of DNA strand breaks and the enzyme-modified version that allows detection of oxidized DNA bases by applying lesion-specific endonucleases (e.g., formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase or endonuclease III). We highlight critical points that need to be taken into consideration when assessing the genotoxicity of NMs, as well as basic methodological considerations, such as the importance of carrying out physicochemical characterization of the NMs and investigating uptake and cytotoxicity. Also, experimental design—including treatment conditions, cell number, cell culture, format and volume of medium on the plate—is crucial and can have an impact on the results, especially when testing NMs. Toxicity of NMs depends upon physicochemical properties that change depending on the environment. To facilitate testing of numerous NMs with distinct modifications, the higher throughput miniaturized version of the comet assay is essential.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

The NORMAN Suspect List Exchange (NORMAN-SLE): facilitating European and worldwide collaboration on suspect screening in high resolution mass spectrometry

Mohammed Taha, Hiba; Aalizadeh, Reza; Alygizakis, Nikiforos; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Arp, Hans Peter; Bade, Richard; Baker, Nancy; Belova, Lidia; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Bolton, Evan E.; Brack, Werner; Celma, Alberto; Chen, Wen-Ling; Cheng, Tiejun; Chirsir, Parviel; Čirka, Ľuboš; D’Agostino, Lisa A.; Djoumbou Feunang, Yannick; Dulio, Valeria; Fischer, Stellan; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Galani, Aikaterini; Geueke, Birgit; Głowacka, Natalia; Glüge, Juliane; Groh, Ksenia; Grosse, Sylvia; Haglund, Peter; Hakkinen, Pertti J.; Hale, Sarah; Hernandez, Felix; Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Jonkers, Tim; Kiefer, Karin; Kirchner, Michal; Koschorreck, Jan; Krauss, Martin; Krier, Jessy; Lamoree, Marja H.; Letzel, Marion; Letzel, Thomas; Li, Qingliang; Little, James; Liu, Yanna; Lunderberg, David M.; Martin, Jonathan W.; McEachran, Andrew D.; McLean, John A.; Meier, Christiane; Meijer, Jeroen; Menger, Frank; Merino, Carla; Muncke, Jane; Muschket, Matthias; Neumann, Michael; Neveu, Vanessa; Ng, Kelsey; Oberacher, Herbert; O’Brien, Jake; Oswald, Peter; Oswaldova, Martina; Picache, Jaqueline A.; Postigo, Cristina; Ramirez, Noelia; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Renaud, Justin; Rostkowski, Pawel; Rüdel, Heinz; Salek, Reza M.; Samanipour, Saer; Scheringer, Martin; Schliebner, Ivo; Schulz, Wolfgang; Schulze, Tobias; Sengl, Manfred; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Sims, Kerry; Singer, Heinz; Singh, Randolph R.; Sumarah, Mark; Thiessen, Paul A.; Thomas, Kevin V; Torres, Sonia; Trier, Xenia; van Wezel, Annemarie P.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Vlaanderen, Jelle J.; von der Ohe, Peter C.; Wang, Zhanyun; Williams, Antony J.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Wishart, David S.; Zhang, Jian; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Schymanski, Emma L.

Background

The NORMAN Association (https://www.norman-network.com/) initiated the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange (NORMAN-SLE; https://www.norman-network.com/nds/SLE/) in 2015, following the NORMAN collaborative trial on non-target screening of environmental water samples by mass spectrometry. Since then, this exchange of information on chemicals that are expected to occur in the environment, along with the accompanying expert knowledge and references, has become a valuable knowledge base for “suspect screening” lists. The NORMAN-SLE now serves as a FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) chemical information resource worldwide.

Results

The NORMAN-SLE contains 99 separate suspect list collections (as of May 2022) from over 70 contributors around the world, totalling over 100,000 unique substances. The substance classes include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural toxins, high production volume substances covered under the European REACH regulation (EC: 1272/2008), priority contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and regulatory lists from NORMAN partners. Several lists focus on transformation products (TPs) and complex features detected in the environment with various levels of provenance and structural information. Each list is available for separate download. The merged, curated collection is also available as the NORMAN Substance Database (NORMAN SusDat). Both the NORMAN-SLE and NORMAN SusDat are integrated within the NORMAN Database System (NDS). The individual NORMAN-SLE lists receive digital object identifiers (DOIs) and traceable versioning via a Zenodo community (https://zenodo.org/communities/norman-sle), with a total of > 40,000 unique views, > 50,000 unique downloads and 40 citations (May 2022). NORMAN-SLE content is progressively integrated into large open chemical databases such as PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and the US EPA’s CompTox Chemicals Dashboard (https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/), enabling further access to these lists, along with the additional functionality and calculated properties these resources offer. PubChem has also integrated significant annotation content from the NORMAN-SLE, including a classification browser (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/classification/#hid=101).

Conclusions

The NORMAN-SLE offers a specialized service for hosting suspect screening lists of relevance for the environmental community in an open, FAIR manner that allows integration with other major chemical resources. These efforts foster the exchange of information between scientists and regulators, supporting the paradigm shift to the “one substance, one assessment” approach. New submissions are welcome via the contacts provided on the NORMAN-SLE website (https://www.norman-network.com/nds/SLE/).

Springer

2022

State of the Climate in 2021: 5. The Arctic

Thoman, Richard L.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Moon, Twila A.; Andreassen, LM.; Baker, E.; Ballinger, Thomas J.; Berner, L.T.; Bernhard, Germar H.; Bhatt, U.S.; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Box, Jason E.; Brettschneider, B.; Burgess, D.; Butler, Amy H.; Cappelen, John; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Decharme, Bertrand; Derksen, C.; Divine, Dmitry V; Drozdov, D. S.; Elias, Chereque A.; Epstein, Howard E.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fettweis, Xavier; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Frost, Gerald V.; Gerland, Sebastian; Goetz, Scott J.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Haas, Christian; Hanna, Edward; Hanssen-Bauer, Inger; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Hendricks, Stefan; Ialongo, Iolanda; Isaksen, Ketil; Jensen, C.D.; Johnsen, Bjørn; Kaleschke, L.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kohler, Jack; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Labe, Zachary; Lakkala, Kaisa; Lara, Mark J.; Lee, Simon H.; Loomis, Bryant; Luks, B.; Luojus, K; Macander, Matthew J.; Magnússon, R. Í.; Malkova, GV; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Manney, Gloria L.; Meier, Walter N.; Mote, Thomas; Mudryk, Lawrence; Müller, Rolf; Nyland, K. E.; Overland, James E.; Pálsson, Finnur; Park, T.; Parker, C.L.; Perovich, Don; Petty, Alek; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Pinzon, J. E.; Ricker, Robert; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Serbin, S. P.; Sheffield, G.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I; Smith, Sharon L.; Stafford, K.M.; Steer, Adam; Streletskiy, Dmitry A.; Svendby, Tove Marit; Tedesco, Marco; Thomson, L.; Thorsteinsson, T; Tian-Kunze, X.; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Tømmervik, Hans; Tschudi, Mark; Tucker, C.J.; Walker, Donald A.; Walsh, John E.; Wang, Muyin; Webster, Melinda; Wehrlé, Adrien; Winton, Øyvind; Wolken, G; Wood, K.; Wouters, B.; Yang, D.

American Meteorological Society

2022

In vivo Mammalian Alkaline Comet Assay: Method Adapted for Genotoxicity Assessment of Nanomaterials

Cardoso, Renato; Dusinska, Maria; Collins, Andrew Richard; Manjanatha, Mugamane; Pfuhler, Stefan; Registre, Marilyn; Elespuru, Rosalie K.

The in vivo Comet assay measures the generation of DNA strand breaks under conditions in which the DNA will unwind and migrate to the anode in an electrophoresis assay, producing comet-like figures. Measurements are on single cells, which allows the sampling of a diversity of cells and tissues for DNA damaging effects. The Comet assay is the most common in vivo method for genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials (NM). The Method outlined here includes a recommended step-by-step approach, consistent with OECD 489, taking into consideration the issues impacting assessment of NM, including choice of cells or systems, handling of NM test articles, dose determination, assay methods and data assessment. This method is designed to be used along with the accompanying “Common Considerations” paper, which discusses issues common to any genotoxicity assay using NM as a test article.

Frontiers Media S.A.

2022

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